Research Proposals

PATRIARCHY AND MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES THROUGH THE CHARACTERS IN THE SELECTED WORKS EFURU AND ANOWA

PATRIARCHY AND MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES THROUGH THE CHARACTERS IN THE SELECTED WORKS EFURU AND ANOWA

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    General Introduction

1.1       Authorial Background of Flora Nwapa

1.2       Background Study of Ata Ama Aidoo

1.3       Purpose

1.4       Justification

1.5       Scope and Delimitation

1.6       Methodology

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0       Introduction

2.1       Definition of Terms: Patriarchy and Matriarchy

2.2.      Definition of Theory: Feminism

2.3       Scholars views on the selected works and the writers; related works to the research topic

 

CHAPTER THREE: PATRIARCHY VERSUS MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES IN FLORA NWAPA’S EFURU

3.0       Introduction

3.1       Patriarchy versus Matriarchy in Efuru

3.2.      Inversion of Characters

3.2.1    Male Characters

3.2.2    Female Characters

3.3       Summary

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PATRIARCHY VERSUS MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES IN ATA AMA ALDOO’S ANOWA

4.0       Introduction

4.1       Patriarchy versus Matriarchy in Anowa

4.2       Characters Inversion

4.2.1     Male Characters

4.2.2      Female Characters

4.3        Summary

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary

5.1       Findings

5.2       Conclusion

Bibliography

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Gender issues have become factors in the social, economic, political, religious development of the society. Patriarchy and matriarchy as negative themes in selected works of Flora Nwapa’s Efuru and Ata Ama Aidoo’s Anowa is to reflect on the negativity of having a man in control of the affairs of the home and the community in general.

Specifically, the two selected works to be used is Efuru and Anowa both tilted after heroines in the works. The works having two different backgrounds Efuru having a Nigerian background while Anowa is of a Ghanaian background but both having African settings, traditions and female authors. Therefore, Flora Nwapa and Ata Ama Aidoo have thematic pre-occupation of patriarchy and matriarchy.

Undeniably, this attitude and way of life between the two genders as reflected in Efuru and Anowa, the authors using characters to drive home this point of inequality.

 

PATRIARCHY AND MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES THROUGH THE CHARACTERS IN THE SELECTED WORKS EFURU AND ANOWA

Allan Durant and Nigel Fabb (1900:43) are of the view that human species has a biologically fixed, binary sex division between male and female, but super imposed on this are culturally constructed oppositions of gender: masculine and feminine, men and women. They went further to say that this system of oppositions of gender is in virtually all cultures; it varies from culture to culture and period to period.

Allan Durant and Nigel Fabb (1900:43) reviews gender as:-

While men, masculine, male are taken as Privileged, defining terms, women, feminine, Female are treated as   simply the other of those Terms. Specific attributes of  women (e.g. bodies, Thoughts, believe etc.) are taken  merely as negative to the positive poles of the oppositions….

 

Furthermore, the two selected works have female protagonists written by female authors giving it a feminist approach. Moreover, in Africa the female situation is similar to that which obtain in the Christian west, most African societies are patriarchal in nature having the men in charge of all affairs, and it is the male that dominate and legislates. The patriarchy and matriarchy as negative themes through the characters in the selected works Efuru and Anowa.

In addition, the first work Efuru(1966) the title character by Flora Nwapa , Efuru is a strong, beautiful, young woman who unfortunately seem to have bad luck with men and unable to bear children. Thus, she independently finds strength in her business and her religious faith in the lake goddess, aid to the poor and sick.

In fact, Like Efuru, Anowa (1970) is a work titled character written by Ama Ata Aidoo. Anowa’s character demonstrates cultural, racial and social tensions. Anowa like Efuru have extra ordinary birth circumstances, having anti social behaviors. The works having honest explorations of the conflicts between the individualism of westernized culture and the social traditions of Africa.

 

1.2     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study is aimed to bring to bring out the negative aspect of patriarchy and matriarchy in selected works of Flora Nwapa’s Efuru and Ama Ata Aidoo’s Anowa. Focusing on how the characters are affected by the culture and tradition of the respective societies. Both works have similar pre-occupation, beliefs, laws, ideals, patriarchal and matriarchal concepts.

 

1.3      JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

Without reservation, the importance of this research work is to illuminate on the negativity of patriarchy matriarchy to the society using selected works of Flora Nwapa’s Efuru and Ata Ama Aidoo’s Anowa. In deed, this research is conceived as an addition to the existing stock of research related to patriarchy and matriarchy. However, the importance of a better relationship between the male and female gender can’t be ignored as a factor for social growth. The patriarchy and matriarchy as negative themes through the characters in the selected works Efuru and Anowa.

Moreover, Florence Stratton (1994:1) says African literature critics have ignored gender as a social and analytic category to exclude women’s literary expression as part of African literature. Hence, what they define is the male literary tradition. Therefore, this research work intends to bring this social system closer to our everyday life and situations in the selected work.

 

1.4           SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

This research work is principally going to study patriarchy and matriarchy as negative themes through the characters in the selected works Efuru and Anowa.

Feminism approach will be used as it affects the people through their culture, tradition and religion. Using the African setting focusing on the negativity of patriarchy and matriarchy in the selected works of Flora Nwapa and Ata Ama Aidoo.

 

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Ikemesit

Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with projectboss.com.ng. I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research. ikemesitetukapan20233@gmail.com

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