effect of culture and tradition as it affect women in buchi emecheta the joys of motherhood and second class citizen

Effect of culture and tradition as it affect women in buchi emecheta the joys of motherhood and second class citizen

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Title Page






Table of Contents



1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Objective of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study

1.5    Research Methodology

1.6    Scope of the Study






3.1    Author’s Bio Data of Buchi Emecheta

3.2    General overview of The Joys of motherhood

3.3    Theme

3.3.1 Slavery

3.3.2 Wife Inheritance

3.3.3 Preference for Male Child

3.3.4 The Effects of Gender on Education




4.1    Author’s Bio Data

4.2    General Overview of Second Class Citizen

4.3    The Effect of Gender on Education

4.4    Preference for Male Child

4.5    Humiliation and Deprivation of Girls Rights



5.1    Summary

5.2    Conclusion

5.3    Recommendations

Works Cited




This study looks at the two West African Novels selected for this work, the Joys of Motherhood and Second Class Citizen by Buchi Emecheta. The study investigates the effect of culture and tradition as it affects women in African Society. It looks at the contemporary African Society which is dominated by men, little or no recognition is given to women thus they have been oppressed, depressed, subjected and neglected.

The study identified the numerous forces militating against the right of African Women specifically in the traditional setting and blamed them on some cultural beliefs and customs which are destructive enough to keep women perpetually at the background. This study shows that as long as men stay on power, women will continue to be subjugated, oppressed and suppressed in the society. It’s hope that an awareness of such practices will eventually eradicate the social inequalities that are engendered by such practices in the African Society.





Background to the Study

Undeniably Feminist movement emerged in the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries in Europe and America respectively. Certainly, women have contributed a great deal too industrial activities with the introduction of feminism. This is to say that women became members of the working class in labour market thus, paving way for new industrial centre’s.


A feminist concept therefore consists of taking interest in the life styles, activities and occupation of women both at home and in societal growth.


Feminism is also a world-wide ideology and political movement directed at changing the existing power relations between man and woman.


However, woman quickly recognized the realities of their new situation and as the century wore on, became the focus of an emergent feminist movement pressure for the right to maintenance and custody in the event of divorce or separation began as early as 1830s.

Feminism as an ideology later finds a fertile ground in Africa in the 1960s. Obioma Nnemeka (1995:40) establishes the functional purpose of the discourse when she asserts that “it provides the opportunity of re-evaluating attitudes and misconception about women which have been buttresses all along both by African culture and misogynous traditions of European colonial master”.


Furthermore, in her article titled, Bauchi Emecheta (1988:62). Acholonu asserts that: women should no longer be decorative accessories, object to be moved about and companion to be flattered or daimed with promises. Thus, they should see themselves as nation’s primary fundamental. Not from which all else grows and blossoms, women must be encouraged to take a keen interest in the destiny of the country.


She tends toward the modernist theory that admonished women to reactualise themselves but not to the detriment of their homes and family.


Womanize perspective that portrays women as mothers and wives while at the same time agitating for gender equality helps to prepare the women for the challenges ahead.


The female characters of such writers with this perspective the therefore created with equitable dynamic attributes. To make them economically independent for self retival and survival in a patriarchal society. Without affecting female roles in the home.


However, each variety of feminism aims at addressing the different need of women and each need of women and fends towards an accommodations principle.

Thus, which advocates joints affect across gender in solving human problems and in developing a solid society. The Effect of Culture and Tradition as It Affect Women in Buchi Emecheta the Joys of Motherhood and Second Class Citizen.


This intention therefore brings the works of Africa female writers into the limelight. Such works of before crucial key for self —realization and self-liberation processing in the African setup where patriarchy is utilize to subjugate and reduce women to second class citizens.


This concept of subjugation in a family is an African tradition that permits the male sex to exercise unlimited authority and emphasize male supremacy over the female. This is basically to bring impediment on the path of the woman in the realization of her potentials.


Joseph (2001:10) assert that, “in order to be almost inextricably successful in that chauvinist patriarchal and authoritarian set up the society conditions and manipulates the economics and psychological being of a woman”.


Modupe Kolawole (1998:60) percales this hold that tradition has on some African women as being so tremendous that they will place culture and tradition over the existing Law designed to facilitate women’s mobilization.


To this end, the authoritarian concepts is more mentinoed in a society where Islamic induction to aid the practices on Purdon. According to Fatima Adamu (1998:40) makes women “to be dependents, submissive and dominated by their husbands”.


Statement of the Problem

Undeniably. women have remained victims of culture and traditional brutality. It is indeed, sad to note that in a 21st century society. When civilization has fully come, gender-based violence still remains in its hydra headed form, as a magnate tumor.


Violence against women is global in reach, and takes places in all culture. It affect women on matter what their race, ethnicity, social origin, birth or other status may be. Going by numbers, 23 percent of women undergo some level of domestic violence. In India today, fear is a constant confront at every corner on any road or in any public place.


There are many culture and traditional practice in Nigeria that give women less important place in the society. They do not have equal chance with the men. They are prevent from having equal education with men and also being the right of owing landed property. Women are seen as nobody in the society.


However, this research work aim at bringing out how culture and tradition practices affect women. The pain it brings and the survival of women in African society.


Objective of the Study

Generally, the main purpose of this study was on the The Effect of Culture and Tradition as It Affect Women in Buchi Emecheta the Joys of Motherhood and Second Class Citizen


The study will focus on the following.


(i)     To investigate the culture that affect women in Nigeria society.


(ii)    To examine those culture and traditional practice that place women as a lesser in the Nigerian society.


(iii)    To highly the effect of culture and tradition on women.


Significance of the Study


The research is significance base on the following fact:


(1)    It explores identities and product the factors responsible for deprivation of women’s right and privileges in the society.


(2)    It highly the negative effects of women marginazation and discrimination of the socio-economic and political development of the society.


(3)    To investigate the culture and tradition reforms to Nigeria and advocate gender equality in society.


(4)    To explore the major literacy concerns of the female writers in Nigeria.


Research Methodology


This research work is to investigate the two West African literature text choosen for the study. Second class citizen and The Joys of Motherhood by Buchi Emecheta as primary sources. The information is gather from critical works, journals, internet that relate to the subject matter that constitute the secondary source.


Scope of the Study


The research study is set out to identify the facts against the right of African women. Specifically in the traditional settings and blame them on some beliefs. Also customs which are bad enough to keep women at the background.


It is to examine inequality and oppression of women in some African culture and tradition practices. The study focuses attention on gender, inequality and oppression of women in all aspect of life in the Nigeria society.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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