Research Proposals

AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF IMPROVISED RESOURCES IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF IMPROVISED RESOURCES IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgments

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  

1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study

1.5    Research Questions

 

1.6    Research hypotheses

1.7    Delimitation of the Study

1.8    Limitation of the Study

1.9    Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO:          REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE:       RESEARCH METHODS

3.1    Area of the Study

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

 

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

3.6    Validation of the Instrument

3.7    Reliability of Instrument

3.8    Administration of the Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Data Analysis

4.2    Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestions for further Study

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the study.

Learning and teaching is the concern of trained teachers, but learning is a complex process. It can however be defined as a change in deposition, a relatively change in behaviour overtime and this is brought by experience. Learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skills, knowledge, perception, facts, principles and new information at hand (AdeyaNju, 2023).

According to Agun (2020) learning can be reinforced by the teacher with teaching resource improvisation of different variety because these learning aids stimulate, motivate as well as arouse learners attention for a while during the instructional process. The source explained that teaching resource are instructional materials and devices through which teaching are done as far as integrated science a subject is concern in schools.

 

AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF IMPROVISED RESOURCES IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Furthermore, Okunrotifia (2017) asserted that some examples of teaching resources include: Visual-aids, audio-visual aids, audio aids are designed materials aids that may be locally made or commercially produced. They come in form of wall charts, illustrated pictures, pictorial materials, puppets and model. These are audio-visual aids. These are teaching machines like radio, television and all sorts of projectors with sounds attributes. The author added that real objects are those real materials like life-ported plant and life specimen of animals, especially in the science related subjects.

On the forgoing, Akanbi (2018) specially noted that whenever teachers taught with some teaching resources, their students get more stimulated because the learning aids used make the learners to become more attentive. In addition, the student positive attitude to learning generate more interest for the lesson they taught which further make student to participate actively in class activities. This in turns enhanced academic achievement of students in secondary schools.

Similarly, Agun (2020) stated that there is need for teachers to improve teaching resources for effective delivery of lesson in the classroom. Availability and utilization of improvised resources in the teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary schools.

 

Accordingly, the dwindling economic fortune of the country makes it imperative that science teachers should improvise teaching resources using resources available with the local environment. Most educational institution cannot afford to depend on imported materials.

Hence, there is need for teachers and their students to improvise teaching and learning materials. This can enhance effective teaching and learning of science, thus improve academic achievement of students. Studies have indicated a close relationship between availability and utilization of improvised resources is very crucial in lesson participation and can serve as motivation for excellence in schools and academic achievement in both internal and external examination (Michael, 2023). Therefore, based this study aimed to examine availability and utilization of improvised resources in the teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary schools.

 

1.2   Statement to the Problem

Integrated science as a subject is an activity oriented and resources based. This suggests that mastery of integrated science concept cannot be fully achieved without the use of learning material in teaching that subject. Therefore, the teaching of integrate science without learning material might results in poor academic achievement and lack of interest in the subject among students.

 

However, over the years, majority of students that sat for the Junior Secondary School Certificate (JSSC) examination have been recording mass failure not only in the area of overall performance, but also in the key subject like Mathematics, English and integrated science (Edem 2023).

The percentage of students who passed their Junior Secondary School Certificate (JSSC) with credit in Integrated Science, Mathematics and English Language was below 50%, (Edem, 2023). The same poor performances were equally recorded by students in the subsequent year 2016.

According to (Essien, 2016), these ugly tread may have indicated the current worry among stakeholders on factors responsible for poor performance of students. Therefore, this study aimed to examine availability and utilization of improvised resources in the teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary schools.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine availability and utilization of improvised resources in the teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary schools. Specifically, the study intends to:

(i)     Determine the level of availability of improvised resources in public secondary schools.

(ii)    Find out whether integrated science students who are exposed to improvise teaching resources performed significantly better than those not exposed to improvised teaching resources.

 

 1.4   Significance of the Study

The outcome of the research will be of immense benefits in the following ways:

(i)     Firstly, it will highlight the effect improvised resources have on teaching and learning of integrated science among Junior Secondary School Students.

(ii)    Secondly, it will expose teachers to the rudiment of improvising and utilizing of teaching and learning of integrated science among Junior Secondary School Students.

(iii)    Also, it will enable the government, non-government organization and major stakeholders to understand the decay in teaching and learning resources in secondary schools. Availability and utilization of improvised resources in the teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary schools.

 

(iv)   Furthermore, government, through the ministry of education can now assess the provision of science resources in our secondary school for teaching of integrated science.

(v)    In addition, the ministry of education will find the information useful and it will be put in play to bring back the glory to Nigeria in global service development.

(vi)   it will also enable educational administrators to strategies in their guest for quantitative integrated science and to organize seminars/workshops to show the relationship between improvised resources and teaching/learning of integrated science.

(vii)  Lastly, it will serve as based-data for future researchers in the field of integrated science and other related discipline on related topics.

 

1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to give the study a guide:

(i)     There is no significant difference in the availability of improvised teaching resources in secondary schools.

(ii)    There is no significant difference in the learning achievement of integrated science by students taught using improvised teaching resources and those taught without improvised teaching resources.

 

Definition of Terms

Availability: This refers to things that you can get, buy or find or free to see or talk to people.

Utilization: In brief, this refers to the use of improvised resources in teaching.

Improvised Resources: In brief, they are those materials produced from the immediate environment in the absence of original foreign materials.

Resources: These refer to the different means of information discrimination and materials by which effective teaching and learning process can be achieved. This usually contains educational information.

 

Conclusion

From the result obtained, it can be inferred that proper understanding of concept reduction of abstraction and increase in students’ participation can be enhanced by the availability and utilization of improvised teaching resources. Also, there is a significant influence in the availability and utilization of improvised teaching resources on the teaching and learning of Basic Science in secondary schools.

 

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Peter Hezekiah

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