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EFFECT OF LABORATORY AND DEMONSTRATION TEACHING STRATEGIES ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN GEOMETRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

EFFECT OF LABORATORY AND DEMONSTRATION TEACHING STRATEGIES ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN GEOMETRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Research Questions

 

1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6     Significance of the study

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

1.8     Limitation of the Study

1.9     Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODS

3.1     Research Design

3.2     Area for the study

3.3    Population for the study

 

3.4     Sampling and Sampling Technique

3.5     Instrumentation

3.6     Instrument Validation

3.7     Administration of Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1     Data Presentation and Analysis

4.2     Discussion of Result

 

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

5.4     Suggestions for further study

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background to the Study

Mathematics plays a key role in the achievement of the objectives of the secondary school education, such as promoting of science and technology, provision of trained manpower in the applied sciences, technology and commerce, and the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competence both mental and physical, as equipment for the individual to live on and contribute to the development of his society (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014). Moreover, it is one of the school subjects that any nation needs for industrial and technological advancement, useful for most vocation and higher specialized courses of learning (Odili, 2009; Sidhu, 2010).

According to Nwoke and Nnaji (2011), Mathematics is the study of quantity, structures, space and change. It developed through the use of abstraction and logical reasoning, from counting, calculation, measurement and the study of the shapes and motion of physical objects.

Mathematics is an excellent vehicle for the development and improvement of a person’s intellectual competence in logical reasoning, spatial visualization, analysis and abstract thought (Curriculum Planning and Development Division, 2010). Students who study Mathematics, therefore, develop numeracy skill, reasoning, thinking skills and problem solving skills through the learning and application of Mathematics.

 

EFFECT OF LABORATORY AND DEMONSTRATION TEACHING STRATEGIES ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN GEOMETRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

The 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Revised: 2012) is focused of giving learners (students) the opportunity to:

(i)            Acquire mathematical literacy necessary to function in an information age.

(ii)           Cultivate the understanding and application of mathematics skills and concepts necessary to thrive in the ever changing technology world.

(iii)          Develop the essential element of problem solving, communication, reasoning and connection within the study of mathematics.

(iv)         Take advantage of the numerous career opportunities provided to Mathematics.

(v)          Become prepared for further studies in Mathematics and other related fields.

 

Today, many problems have arisen in the teaching Mathematics like the use of unqualified teachers in the teaching of mathematics in different schools, teachers who do not have knowledge about the subject or not mathematically inclined. The non-challant attitudes of students towards mathematics and learning at large, due to the lack of use of motivational approach by the teachers.

The poor environment and lack of infrastructural facilities has led to failure in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The total failure in the usage of instructional material due to poor knowledge of instructional aides by teachers, all these have led to failure in effective teaching and learning of mathematics (Umoinyang, 2012).

 

Srinivasa (2013) had earlier recommended the use of mathematics laboratory in teaching mathematics as this will lead the students to formation of concepts out of experiences with discrete objects. In this case the vague theories and imaginary objects take real shape and the students understand better and perform better. It is important therefore to consider strategies that may help to improve the performance, with the view of considering their effect on teaching and learning of mathematics. Thus, such strategies include the use of mathematics laboratory (Ogunkunle, 2010).

Geometry is a vital branch of the mathematics curriculum. According to the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2010), grade 6–8 students (age 13-15 years) should come to the study of geometry with informal knowledge about points, lines, planes and a variety of two-and three dimensional shapes with geometric relationships. Effect of laboratory and demonstration teaching strategies on students academic performance in geometry in secondary schools.

 

Middle school students are capable of developing good reasoning about geometric situations when students have had substantial experience in geometry during elementary school. Many students develop misconceptions and others fail to go beyond simple visualization of geometric figures (Mistretta, 2010).

Gender influence on students’ academic achievement has been of concern to researchers, but no consistent result has been established. In a study conducted by Dhindsa and Chung (2009), female students had higher academic achievement in Mathematics than their male counterparts.

 

In another study by Bosede (2010), the male students had higher academic achievement in Mathematics than their female counterparts. Furthermore, study conducted by Salta and Tzougraki (2014) showed no gender differences in students’ academic achievement in Mathematics. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of laboratory teaching and demonstration learning strategy on students’ academic performance in Geometry in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.

 

1.2          Statement of the Problem

Evidence of poor performance in mathematics by secondary school students points to the fact that the most desired technological, scientific and business application of mathematics cannot be sustained. This makes it paramount to seek for a strategy for teaching mathematics that aims at improving its understanding and performance by students.

Evidence abound that lack of mathematics laboratory and Mathematics teachers non-use of laboratory technique in teaching mathematical concepts such as geometry is one of the major factors that contribute to poor achievement in mathematics by secondary school students. Effect of laboratory and demonstration teaching strategies on students academic performance in geometry in secondary schools.

 

Researchers had observed that lack of mathematics laboratory and mathematics teachers’ non use of laboratory technique and demonstration learning strategy in teaching mathematics is one of the major factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics concept such as geometry by secondary school students. The West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chief Examiner (2016-2018) reported candidates lack of skill in answering almost all the questions asked in geometry.

In view of this, the study is designed to assess the usefulness of laboratory strategy in teaching of geometry and also the efficacy of this strategy on students’ performance when compared with those taught using demonstration teaching strategies among Junior Secondary School (JSS) mathematics students in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.

 

1.3          Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of laboratory and demonstration teaching strategies on students academic performance in geometry in secondary schools. Specifically, the study is conducted to:

  1. Determine the difference between laboratory teaching and demonstration learning strategy on students’ academic performance in Geometry.
  2. Examine the difference in academic performance of male and female students taught Geometry using laboratory teaching strategy.
  3. Examine the difference in academic performance of male and female students taught Geometry using demonstration learning strategy.

 

1.4          Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated for the study:

  1. What is the mean difference between laboratory teaching and demonstration learning strategy on students’ academic performance in Geometry?
  2. What is the mean difference between academic performance of male and female students taught Geometry using laboratory teaching strategy?
  3. What is the mean difference between academic performance of male and female students taught Geometry using demonstration teaching strategy?

 

1.5          Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the researcher in the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught using laboratory teaching and demonstration learning strategy in Geometry.
  2. There is no significant difference between academic performance of male and female students taught geometry using laboratory teaching strategy.
  3. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught geometry using demonstration learning strategy.

 

1.6          Significance of the Study

The study is useful in bringing the teaching of mathematics in line with modern technological devices and making learning take place effectively.

  • Firstly, laboratory instructional strategy can act like a concomitant between teachers and students and provide an opportunity to understand and discover the beauty, importance and relevance of mathematics as a discipline. This is helpful in showing the effectiveness and the usefulness of laboratory teaching strategy for teaching geometry in Mathematics to the teachers and all other classroom teaching and learning activities.
  • Secondly, through the study, students’ attitude in mathematics and performance can be improved. Policy makers and curriculum developers can see the need to emphasize the use of laboratory instructional strategy in mathematics teaching in secondary schools.

 

  • The society will benefit from the study because if the study helps to improve student’s performance and positive attitude in mathematics, then the subject and its allied courses (engineering, pharmacy, industrial physics, etc.) will be studied by many students in institution of higher learning. Effect of laboratory and demonstration teaching strategies on students academic performance in geometry in secondary schools.
  • The findings of the study will provide an insight into the effects of variable like gender, attitude and retention improving learning among junior students in mathematics for mathematics educators and curriculum planners.
  • It will educate students on the need to develop and improve learning strategies that will enhance effective learning and their academic performance in mathematics and other school subjects.
  • Finally, it is believed that the findings of this work will make a modest contribution to the existing body of knowledge and also be useful for further research.

 

Definition of Terms 

Laboratory: Laboratory is a place where students can learn and explore various mathematical concepts and verify different mathematical facts and theories using varieties of activities and materials.

Laboratory Method: Is a planned learning activity dealing with original or raw data in the solution of problems. It is a procedure involving first hand experiences with materials or facts derived from investigations or experimentation and this planned learning activities or first hand experiences can happen also in the classroom where learning takes place. Effect of laboratory and demonstration teaching strategies on students academic performance in geometry in secondary schools.

Demonstration Learning Strategy: In brief, this is a learning strategy used by teachers to arrive at fundamental skills and practice in a very short amount of time.

Geometry: Is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

Gender: This is a state of being   male or female with reference to social or cultural differences rather than biological ones.

Academic Performance: Academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured through examinations or continuous assessments.

 

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that laboratory and demonstration teaching strategies do enhance students’ academic performance in geometry in secondary schools.

 

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Ikemesit

Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with projectboss.com.ng. I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research. ikemesitetukapan20233@gmail.com

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