Research Proposals

PLAY APPARATUS AND HEALTH FITNESS AMONG PUPILS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

PLAY APPARATUS AND HEALTH FITNESS AMONG PUPILS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE- INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the study

1.2    Statement of the problem

1.3    Purpose of the study

1.4    Significance of the study

1.5    Research Questions

 

1.6    Research Hypotheses

1.7    Limitation of the study

1.8    Delimitation of the study

1.9    Operational Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Conceptual framework of health fitness

2.2    Play apparatus and physical fitness

2.3    Play apparatus and Social fitness among pupils

2.4    Play apparatus and emotional fitness

2.5    Summary of review of related literature

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHOD

3.1    Area of the study

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5    Research Instrument

 

3.6    Validation of the Instrument

3.7    Administration of the Instrument

3.8    Scoring of the Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

OF FINDING

4.1    Data Analysis     –       –       –       –       –       –       31

4.2    Discussion of findings –       –       –       –       –       33

 

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND

                        CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

References

Appendix

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated play apparatus and health fitness among pupils in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area. The population for the study was 2604 primary five pupils from twenty primary schools. The sample size for the study was 260 primary five pupils from fifteen primary schools. Three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study in line with the objective of the study. Survey research design was adopted in the study.

 

A 15- item questionnaire entitled” Questionnaire on Play Apparatus and Health Fitness among Pupils in Primary Schools (QPAHFAPPS)” was the instrument for data collection. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s products moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC). Findings showed that, there is a significant relationship between play apparatus and health fitness among primary schools.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the study

Indeed, there is every need for expansion of early childhood activities exploration of all available instruments of information communication and social action to assist people acquire the minimum basic learning necessary for a better life. Thus, it has been noted that an active man is a healthy man.

 

Therefore, it is very important for the teachers to use play materials to make teaching and learning at primary level simple, interesting, systematic, positively interactive and meaningful development of educational experiences especially communicates competences (Ekwueme and Igwe, 2023).

 

Moreover, Vygosky (2018) believed that children develop an understanding of the world through play and that adults could encourage this development by appropriate intervention. He however viewed play as a means for social assisted learning and scaffolding.

 

According to Vygosky (2018) in scaffolding to adults assists the child to perform at a higher level than would be possible without adult support. When a child is able to perform alone, the adult gradually withdraws and lets the child act independently. This kind of adult intervention helps children expand their knowledge and learning during play.

 

PLAY APPARATUS AND HEALTH FITNESS AMONG PUPILS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

However, researchers found that play is an ideal way to support children’s emergent literary (Chintie and Enz, 2012) and that play enhances children’s narrative ability (Ilgae and Aksukoa, 2015).

Studies indicate that availability of stimulating objects, books and play apparatus within the home and school environment are actual indicators for the overall quality of the environment. The level of skill that children display in performing certain activities increases as they develop.

 

As children develop so does they play. Play is as important for a child’s developmental needs and good nutrition, warmth and protection.

In addition, according to Haydan, et al (2019), play provides opportunities to improve gross and fine motor skills and maintain physical health. Thus, it helps to develop imagination and creativity, provides a context in which to practice social skills, acts as an outlet for emotional expression and provides opportunities to understand value system. On the basis of the important role of play and the use of appropriate play apparatus in the teaching-learning process.

Therefore, the present study was conducted to ascertain when play apparatus could significantly related to health fitness among pupils in primary schools.

 

1.2   Statement of the problem

In any case, health and success in school are inextricably intertwined. Good health facilitates children’s growth development and optimal learning while education contributes to children’s knowledge about being healthy. It has been noted that school are the major institution for providing the instruction and experience that prepares young people for their roles as healthy, productive adults.

Renfiled and Shannon (2023), notes that schools can and invariably do play a powerful role in influencing pupils health related behaviours.

 

Studies of young people have found that health risk behaviours negatively affect education outcomes, including graduation rates, class grades, and performance on standardized tests, education behaviours including attendance, dropout rates, behavioural problems and degree of environment in school activities such as homework and extracurricular pursuits as well as pupils attitude which include aspiration for post primary education, feelings about safety at school and positive personal attitude.

 

Furthermore, schools cannot achieve their primary mission of education if pupils and staff are not healthy and fit physically, mentally and socially. in addition, according to Penfield and Shannon (2023), health fitness among learners influences the academic performance of student in schools.

The author further stated that play increases children health fitness in schools emotionally, socially and mentally. This triggers the researcher to ask, could the availability of play apparatus to be use by pupils during play influence their health fitness? Therefore, finding answer to this question motivated the researcher to investigate play apparatus and health fitness among pupils in primary schools.

 

1.3    Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between play apparatus and health fitness among pupils in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area. Specifically, the study will aim at:

  • Establishing the relationship between play apparatus and physical fitness among pupils.
  • Determine the extent to which play apparatus relates social fitness among pupils.
  • Assessing the extent to which play apparatus related to emotional fitness among pupils in primary schools.

 

1.4    Significance of the study

It is the researchers hope that this study shall be significant to government, parents, teachers and administrators in the following ways:

  • Firstly, the study will enlighten government and school administrators on the need to provide adequate and quality play apparatus in primary schools in the area.
  • Secondly, assist teachers to see the need to involve pupils in play using apparatus instruments in giving instructions as his promote health fitness.
  • Also, help the administrators to provide adequate space for play in their school.
  • Serve as a reference manual for further studies.

 

1.5    Research Questions 

  • Is there any relationship between play apparatus and physical fitness among pupils in primary schools?
  • To what extent does play apparatus and social fitness among pupils in primary schools?
  • To what extent does play apparatus and emotional fitness among pupils in primary schools?

 

1.6    Research Hypotheses 

  • There is no significant relationship between play apparatus and physical fitness among pupils in primary schools.
  • There is no significant relationship between play apparatus and social fitness among pupils in primary schools.
  • There is no significant relationship between play apparatus and emotional fitness among pupils in primary schools.

 

1.7    Limitation of the study

The possibly challenges that the researcher faced in the process of conducting this study were insufficient finances to purchase and process necessary materials required for the study; inadequate time frame to cover the entire area and submit the report at the given internal as well as unfavourable climatic condition.

 

Operational Definition of Terms

Play: These are activities done by children for pleasure.

Play Apparatus: In brief, these are tools needed by children for play (e.g) toy, mary-go-round, hip of sound, ball, tennis ball etc.

Apparatus: The tools or other pieces of equipment that are needed for a particular activity or task.

Health Fitness: In brief, this refers to the state of being physically and mentally fit for activities

Pupils: These are children in primary level of education.

 

Conclusion

Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

  • Play apparatus has a significant relationship with physical fitness among pupils in primary schools.
  • The study also found that play apparatus has significantly related to social fitness among pupil in primary schools.
  • There was a significant relationship between play apparatus and emotional fitness among pupils in primary schools.

 

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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

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