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ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE     – INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the study

1.4     Research Hypotheses

1.5     Significance of the study

 

1.6     Delimitation of the study

1.7     Limitation of the study

1.8     Definition of Operational Terms

 

 CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Research Area

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

 

3.5    Research Instrument

3.6    Validation of the Instrument

3.7    Reliability of the Instrument

3.8    Administration of the Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis

 

 CHAPTER FOUR – PRESENTATION OF RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Presentation of Result

4.2    Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestion for further studies

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Without reservation, there is a growing assertion that environmental variables have strong relationship with students’ learning in schools. This is predicated on observation that a group of children with nearly the same intelligent quotient (IQ) may show a glaring disparity when exposed to the same instructional materials.

Moreover, the cause of such disparities puzzles even the teacher who is supposed to provide ready-made answer to such disparities. In fact, what the child learns in his environment prepares him for his formal education. Thus, the role of environment as it applies to academic orientation of the child is highly indispensable. This has been identified by many scholars and educationists such as Mege (2023), Lyons (2021) and Chuma (2022).

 

ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

According to Umoh (2016), nature only provides the raw materials in forms of potentials to the child but it is the environment that determines the extent of development of the child. Furthermore, Bloom and Offiong (2022) in trying to justify this, claim that environment exerts a powerful effect in the growth and development of a child.

In addition, assessing the cause effect of the environment on the level of students’ academic performance, researchers consider some variables of the environment as school location, availability of instructional materials amongst other that could tailor the level of students’ academic performance. Environmental variables and learning of biology in secondary schools.

 

The environmental variables which include the school size, school type, school structure, school location, parental education and occupation is deem fit to affect students’ academic performance. Hence environmental variable remain an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ academic performance.

Bandele (2023) noted that the importance of environmental variables in the school cannot be neglected. He added that at any educational level, the quality of education depends upon several factors such as school location, availability and utilization of instructional materials, teachers’ qualification and motivation amongst other.

Similarly, Okumbe (2021) asserted that some environment variables that affect the academic performance of students include the home environment, peer group, classroom environments and the field/laboratory environment. This becomes a concern to the researcher and it forms the background for the study of environmental variables and learning of biology in secondary schools.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Indeed, promotion of vocational skills in academic endeavour for national growth and development is the priority of nations. In fact, the schools, educators, industrialists and researchers are now very concerned with the relevance and contributions of learning environments to the students’ cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills to the world of work (Nsa, Offiong, Udo and Ikot; 2022).

However, parents and stakeholders in education have complained on the poor academic performance of students in internal and external examinations as announced by the Head of National Office WAEC that only 43.56% of the candidates had five credits and above, including mathematics and English in the 2016 May/June result. Environmental variables and learning of biology in secondary schools.

 

According to the head of National office (HNO) of WAEC, he further said that 118, 101 results representing 7.41% were withheld due to examination malpractice (Fapohunda, 2016).

Without a doubt, reasons range from poor and ineffective teaching personnel to inadequate or non-availability of facilities in schools, location of the schools, family variables, school type amongst others as asserted by Umoh (2015) and Amos (2016). This therefore, raised the question: could the environmental factors such as school location, and school laboratory influence the students learning of Biology in Secondary Schools? To provide answer to this question, the researcher investigated into environmental variables and learning of biology in secondary schools.

 

1.3    Purpose of the Study 

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental variables and learning of biology in secondary schools. Specifically, the study is meant to:

(i)     Investigate the influence of laboratory facilities on students learning of Biology in secondary schools.

(ii)    Investigate the influence of school location on students learning of Biology in secondary schools.

 

1.4    Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

(i)     There is no significant influence of laboratory facilities on students learning of Biology in secondary schools.

(ii)    There is no significant influence of school locationon students learning of Biology in secondary schools.

 

1.5    Significance of the Study

The study is highly significant in enabling parents, educationists and education stakeholders in measuring environmental variables in relationship to academic performance.

Also, this study will be of immense contribution to professional in Biology bodies whose program of catching the best young athletes in their fields as this study will explain the relationship between the environmental variables and students’ performance in the fields of physical fitness in our secondary schools. Environmental variables and learning of biology in secondary schools.

Finally, the knowledge among the Biology teachers on the negative influence caused by the poor classroom management will make them to develop and enrich in proper classroom management and control culture in order to improve the good performance of the students.

 

Definition of Operational Terms

The following terms used in this work were defined by the researcher as used in the study.

Environment: In brief, these include all readily available materials in the students immediate surrounding used for the study of Biology.

Environmental Variables: The totality of factors that directly or indirectly influence teaching and learning process. It includes availability of school laboratory and school location (Urban and rural) as used in this study.

Learning: In brief, this is the permanent change in character in the learners.

Academic Performance: This is the grade or scores of students in examination which shows the level to which learning occur.

 

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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

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