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1.1  Background to the Study

Teaching styles are defined as things that guide and direct the instructional processes and that affect students and their ability to learn (Grasha, 2002). Similarly,  Artvini (2010) defines teaching styles as the leading factors that shape and assure the success of a highly complex teaching-learning processes. Learning styles, on the other hand, are defined as the learners’ profile on their approach to learning, a design on how the learners perceive, interact with and respond to the learning environment (Karaabuga, 2015).

Furthermore, teachers’ teaching styles and strategies are currently being used to encourage a conducive learning climate. A learning environment that gives students the freedom to make choices will encourage them to be physically, emotionally and mentally involved in the learning process so that it can bring up creative and productive activities. In the learning process, students’ attention to the subject matter presented by the teacher is very important. This will support the achievement of learning objectives. Learning objectives are achieved when students achieve mastery of the material provided in a meeting in the classroom. Many things can interfere with students’ attention in listening to the subject matter so that it affects their learning outcomes. Indeed, many factors affect the lack of student attention in the learning process, for example, lack of teacher explanation of the goals, teacher teaching style, and so forth.

According to Grasha (1994) teachers’ teaching styles as, Formal Authority, Expert, Facilitator, Personal Model, and Delegator styles. Grasha (1994) evaluated teaching styles as formal authority, expert, facilitator, delegator, and personal model. Female teachers preferred a delegator or facilitator style because it guides students and consultant them in transmitting the knowledge, set goals, and provide feedback. Starbuck (2003) identified the gender inconsistencies in teaching styles with specific disciplines.


In departments where women are in greater number, they control better discipline. Grasha and Hicks (2000) revealed that effectiveness of teaching styles is an important element of lessons. Female teachers liked while working with delegator and facilitator styles during teaching and learning process (Grasha, 1994).

Bohren (2019) identified different teaching styles. Lecture style is called authority method as contains listening to teacher talk about a topic and students listen, memorize, and take notes according to their caliber. The coaching style is called demonstrator method which tries to sustain authority in classrooms. The Facilitator style is like the activity method that encourages self- learning.

The Delegator style is a popular style same like group methods are used in group work and labs. The Hybrid style integrates personal preference of individual traits (Bohren, 2019). Teaching styles are the approaches that teachers use during lectures (Metzler, 2000; Rink, 2002). They link learning with instructions to attain the specific outcomes or result. Teachers are are categorized with respect to teaching styles (Mosston& Ashworth, 2002).

Suparman (2010) argues that teaching style is the way teachers use when learning. Daryanto (2010) suggested that teachers who often provide exercises in the context of understanding the material will produce better students when compared to teachers who merely explain and do not give follow-up continuously.



The teaching style is defined by Grasha (2002) as a conceptual model of teaching and learning from the teacher to direct students’ thoughts and actions. Good teaching is an activity to develop, convey, assist in the formation of learning meaning so that the concepts of good or bad teaching can shape students’ perceptions of the teacher’s teaching style. The teaching style is closely related to a specific behavior, so the teacher’s teaching style can be perceived by students.


According to Suparno, et al. (2006), to create an ideal atmosphere in the classroom, teachers need a teaching style that can explain lessons well, foster student motivation, use learning media well, guide and direct students in learning. Djamarah, Bahri and Zain (2010) asserted that indicators of variations in teacher teaching style include variations in sound, emphasis (focusing), giving time (pausing), contact view, movement of limbs, and displacement of teacher positions.According to Mc Donald in Nashar (2004), motivation to learn is a change in energy within a person which is marked by the emergence of feelings and reactions to achieve goals.

Meanwhile, according to Alderfer in Nashar (2004), learning motivation is the tendency of students to carry out learning activities that are driven by a desire to achieve the best possible learning achievements or results. Meanwhile, according to Donald as quoted by Sardiman (2010), motivation is a change in energy in a person characterized by the emergence of feeling and preceded by a response to the existence of goals.


In learning activities, motivation can be said to be the overall driving force within students that gives rise to learning activities, which ensures the continuity of learning activities so that the desired goals can be achieved. According to Anni (2006), motivation is indeed very important in the learning and teaching process. If students do not have the motivation to learn, then there will be no learning activities in these students so that the learning outcomes decline.

According to Darsono et al. (2000), several factors that influence motivation are students’ ideals or aspirations, abilities, conditions, learning and learning environments, and teacher efforts in learning students.Wahyudi (2012) states that learning achievement is an improvement in student development after participating in learning activities within a certain time.


Statement of the Problem

Many teachers teaching styles exist in education. All the teaching styles are meant to make teachers succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. However, little are considered on some factors that are necessary before selecting the appropriate teaching style. Researchers, believes that the falling level of academic performance is attributed to teacher’s non-use of appropriate teaching styles. Several studies have been conducted about teaching styles in secondary schools in many parts of the world on students’ performance. Some of the problems emanated from the studies include: poor implementation of teaching styles and lot more.


Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine teaching styles and academic performance of students in secondary schools. Specifically, it seeks to:

    1. Expert teaching styles and academic performance of students in secondary schools.
    2. Formal Authority teaching styles and academic performance of students in secondary schools.
    3. Personal Model teaching styles and academic performance of students in secondary schools.
    4. Facilitator teaching styles and academic performance.
    5. Delegator teaching styles and academic performance of students in secondary schools.


Research Questions

  1. How does expert teaching styles affects academic performance of students in secondary schools?
  2. Does formal Authority teaching styles affects academic performance of students in secondary schools?
  3. How does personal Model teaching styles affects academic performance of students in secondary schools?
  4. To what extent does facilitator teaching styles affect academic performance of students in secondary schools?
  5. Does delegator teaching styles affects academic performance of students in secondary schools?


Significance of the study

The study will help to increase the teachers’ level of awareness and understanding of the influence of teaching styles.

Findings may also provide the teachers with a feedback on the teaching competences in most commonly used teaching styles as basis for improving in the instructional practices so that they can hence performance.

Curriculum planners and educators as well as government and educational administrators need empirical data on the overall teaching styles of teachers in secondary schools to facilitate proper curricula policies and programmes for effective teaching and learning.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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