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1.1 Background to the Study

Science is doing and involves regular hands – on practical work for learners to develop scientific literacy to face global challenges. Biology as a science subject is studied or taught by using different methods which employs the use of all sense organs. Including olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste), auditory (hearing), kinesthetic (skin). And optical (seeing) of which only the application of theory in teaching and learning could not yield 100-percent accuracy without the use of laboratory resources.


Thus, effective teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools with the use of laboratory resources is very necessary if biology teachers must gainfully achieve stated objectives.

Biology as a science subject is based on practicals and experiments. Its objectives as contained in the National policy on education (FRN, 2013) include among others to equip learners. Thus, with meaningful and relevant knowledge of Biology. It is only through the availability and utilization of these materials (laboratory materials) that the above objectives and goals can be achieved.

In addition, Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms. Including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. According to the national policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigerian, 2013). Learning of biology will provide the students with suitable laboratory and field skills in biology.



The teaching and learning of biology motivate students to; develop practical techniques and process skills. Acquire knowledge and develop understanding of fundamental biological principles, concepts, terms and facts. Show understanding of the applications and uses of biological knowledge in daily life; develop an understanding of current issues and developments in biology.

According to Lawal (2023), such materials promote learning by doing, make the classroom lively, real, and meaningful and have the potential to make the content worth learning. When these laboratory materials are used it will promote creativity and self-reliance. Also, at the same time, contributes meaningfully to effective teaching. Some Laboratory materials can be readily acquired, modified or developed by ingenious teachers to suit various needs and purposes in the teaching/learning process (Nkang, 2022).

The science laboratory has a direct effect on both students’ attitudes and academic achievement as per the instructional theory of learning interaction. It is generally believed that constant practice leads to proficiency in what the learner learns during classroom instruction. Hence, the dictum “practice makes perfect” (Lawal, 2023).


The quality of teaching and learning experience depends on the extent of the adequacy of laboratory resources in secondary schools and the teacher’s effectiveness in the use of laboratory resources with the aim of facilitating and providing meaningful learning experiences in the learners. The effect of laboratory experience in student achievement in biology in secondary schools.

The availability and adequate use of laboratory resources during science instruction helps to develop values that aid the learners in decision-making. The laboratory is a distinctive feature in science teaching and learning. (Stuckey, 2013).


Lyons (2012), states that learning is a complex activity that involves interplay of students‟ motivation, physical resources, teaching resources, skills of teaching and curriculum demands. The process of managing and organizing resources is called resource utilization.

The utilization of resources (laboratory resources) in education brings about fruitful learning outcomes since resources stimulate students learning as well as motivating them.  It is therefore necessary for the teachers to utilize available resources in teaching the learners in order to help the students comprehend the lesson with ease which will in turn improves their overall achievement in schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The continuous record of students’ poor attitudes towards the study of Biology is a serious problem in the Nigeria educational system, most especially at the secondary school level. Teaching and learning of biology ought to be simplified, comprehensive and concrete. Extensive use of laboratory resources makes biology interesting, stimulating and understandable to the learners.


The success of biology students in secondary schools largely depends on the availability and effective utilization of available human and material resources.


Teachers find it difficult during laboratory activities to supervise and teach large classes and combine the practical effectively with normal class lessons.

Most laboratory resources are lost, damaged or carelessly stored. It was on this background that the researcher became interested to investigate the effects of laboratory experience in student academic achievement in biology in secondary schools in the study area.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of laboratory experience in student academic achievement in biology in secondary schools.

Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Investigate the availability of laboratory materials in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ilorin East local Government Area.
  2. Examine the extent of the utilization of laboratory materials in the learning of Biology in secondary schools.


1.4 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be beneficial to the following persons: biology teachers, biology students, education administrators, policy makers, researchers, curriculum planners and textbook writers.

The result of the study could enable biology teachers to see the need for effective and efficient utilization of available laboratory resources provided to schools. In the same way, students will appreciate the need to manage and improvise laboratory resources in secondary schools. The effect of laboratory experience in student achievement in biology in secondary schools.

Biology students would realize the importance of group and individual laboratory work situations in the effort of learning biology concepts. It could also help the students to become knowledgeable in the following areas: communication, problem-solving, self-confidence and critical thinking.


To education administrators as the recommendations will enhance educational growth. It will also furnish them with the quantity and quality of laboratory resources that are available in secondary schools the extent to which they are utilized for effective and efficient dispensation of lessons. They will also appreciate the need to plan, direct, control, co-ordinate and supervise institutions of higher learning to actualize national educational objectives.

The findings of this study will help policy makers to work out effective means of providing and managing resources in biology laboratories in secondary schools.


Researchers on assessing this study would find it useful since it will provide them with documents and reference materials.

To the curriculum experts the findings of the study could form a basis for introducing laboratory innovations in teaching at all levels to promote practical based learning in schools.

The textbook writers on assessing the findings of this study would upgrade the content of the textbooks to include fifty (50) percent practical and fifty (50) percent theoretical work on all science and its related subjects.


1.5     Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study

  1. To what extent are laboratory materials available in the teaching biology?
  2. To what extent are laboratory materials utilized in the learning of biology?


1.6     Limitation of the Study

  1. Time constraint: time duration allowed for the completion of this research work could not be enough for the research to have a wider scope.
  2. Financial problem: this constituted one of the major limitations to the researcher especially as the researcher had to source for relevant materials on the topic and visit the sampled schools under the investigation for data collection.
  3. Insufficient references materials: this also was a problem as the researcher needed enough relevant literature on the topic.


1.7    Definition of Terms

Laboratory: This is a place equipped and used for explanation to scientific laws and theories to students while learning Biology.

Laboratory experience: Laboratory experience means a component of classroom instruction consisting of a simulated clinical experience, in which the student is provided the opportunity to practice skills. The laboratory experience gives the students the opportunity of seeing, touching, smelling, and hearing.

Teaching: This is the act of helping people to learn effectively.

Biology: In brief, this is the study of plants and animals.



The study has carefully examined the availability and utilization of laboratory resources in teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools. It is therefore ascertained in the study that the availability and utilization of laboratory materials influences the learning of Biology in Secondary Schools.

Hence, based on the research questions of this study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. The availability of laboratory materials affects the teaching of Biology in secondary schools.
  2. The utilization of laboratory materials affect the learning of Biology in secondary schools.


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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is My personal number; +2347068634102

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