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Title Page





Table of Contents



1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study

1.5    Research Questions


1.6    Research Hypotheses

1.7    Delimitation of the Study

1.8    Limitation of the Study

1.9    Definition of Terms


CHAPTER TWO:         




3.1    Area of the Study

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection


3.6    Validation of the Instrument

3.7    Reliability of the Instrument

3.8    Administration of the Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis



4.1    Data Analysis

4.2    Discussion of Findings



5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion






1.1  Background to the Study

Indeed, it has been observed that most Christian Religious Studies teachers are not motivated to further their studies. This lack of recognition and opportunities may be attributed to the fact that subjects like mathematics, the sciences, and English receive more recognition and opportunities compared to Christian Religious Studies.

In the Nigerian school system, Christian Religious Studies is a general elective and can be picked by even science students to make up their required number of subjects. More teachers are therefore needed to accommodate the high number of students picking the course (Eric and Serwaa, 2023).

Therefore, if interest in reading Christian Religious Studies as a program is hampered, then there will be fewer qualified teachers to handle the course, hence any clergyman can be pointed to fill in the void irrespective of his or her educational discipline and or background (Ntamu, Owulu, & Monity, 2016).


Lawal (2010) rightly noted that the number of teachers of Christian Religious Studies (CRS) who do not hold Christian Religious Studies certificates is higher compared to teachers of other subjects.

Hence, even when such teachers go on for further studies, they would not do them in Christian Religious Studies. He observed that although students with such  teachers  may achieve  higher marks  in their terminal examinations in  Christian Religious Studies, their performance  in  the  Senior  School  Certificate  Examination (SSCE)  declines significantly.



Similarly, Ntamu, Owulu & Monity (2016) found a decline in students’ academic performance in CRK over the years compared to other subjects in the school system.

Undeniably, teaching is old as human existence on earth. It is known historically that first human infant had to learn practically everything through imitation (Ekanem, 2016). In a school setting, which is of particular concern to us, it meaning to talk about teaching as profession where there is no “specialized skill that is used in the development of formal knowledge in the learner”.


Hirst (2010) sees teaching as a type of communication. According to him, for there to be communication, there must be a communicator and a message. The teaching activity therefore logically needs a lesson, a pupil and intended response from learner and a teacher. Thus, according Eddie (2006) “a teacher occupies an important position in the teaching-learning process”.

According to Drama (2010), there is always the possibility of people influencing one another through interactive experience. Seeing the important position occupy by a teacher bring the question “who should teach”? This implies who should we call a teacher? Answering that question, Ekanem (2016) observed that one who has the attitude to teach and who has undergone teacher training course, passed the required examinations and certified as such that is the person to be considered competent to teach in a classroom and can be addressed as a teacher.

According to teacher’s handbook of 1992, the following categories of professional teachers are recognized in Nigeria. This has been categorized into three main categories namely:

Professional Teacher I

  1. /B.A./B.Sc,Ed,M.Ed.
  2. BA/B.Sc. plus either the NCE or post graduate certificate or diploma in education or TCII.
  3. Any higher degree plus teaching qualification as in (a) and (b) above.


 Teacher II

  1. NCE/NTTC or equivalent
  2. HND plus Teaching Qualification
  3. Diploma at Yaba College
  4. Advanced craftiful technological certificate plus TCII
  5. Advance commercial certificate plus N.T.T.C.


Teacher III

  1. Diploma or professional certificate in institute of education
  2. Associate’s Certificate of Education
  3. Grade I Teacher Certificate
  4. Grade II Teacher Certificate
  5. The probed Teacher Certificate

These Registered Qualifications admit teachers into the teaching profession at various levels. To support the course of professionalism in teaching, the above is carefully outlined to give a clear picture of what teachers’ qualification is liken to in the Nigerian stand point.

According to the National Policy on Education (N.P.E.) (2014) since no education system may rise above the quality of it’s teacher, teacher education shall continue to be given major emphasis in all educational planning and development.

The minimum qualification for entry into the teaching profession shall be the NCE. This means that an upgrading had taken place after the categorization first given in the teacher’s handbook. The influence of qualified teachers on effective teaching and learning of Christian Religious Studies in junior secondary schools.

However, while examining the factors that affect the teaching/learning process, Akinade (2016) mentioned nature of hereditary environment and school related factors. Under school related factors, school type as well as the teacher factor were mentioned.


Under teacher factor, Akinade (2016) outlined the following in line with the qualification of the teacher, quality of training received by the teacher the higher the better. Relevance of teachers’ qualification to what subject the teacher teaches the more relevant the better.

Quality of his interest to the job and teacher’s attitude to work the more positive the better as opposed to truancy, lateness, absenteeism and general disinterestedness.


Pertinent to note also is the fact that the qualification of a teacher in terms of certificate and how higher he has gone in the profession may not really promote teaching and learning without the expected personal qualities such as hard work, honesty, justice, fairness, self-confidence, dedication as well as resourcefulness.

Since quite a lot of serving teachers are variously certificated with designated qualification, but they still persist the issue of teacher’s effectiveness and pupil’s academic performance in various school subject. It therefore render the focus of this studies which seeks to investigate teacher’s qualification and students academic performance in Christian Religious Studies in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.


1.2  Statement of the Problem

Christian Religious Studies as a subject demands quality teachers in its delivery explicitly. However, this is not so because in most schools in Christian Religious Studies is regarded as  a simple  subject,  hence  someone  without  the necessary  credentials,  may  be  seen  handling  the subject.  These teachers will lack content knowledge as they had not read the required courses as well as methods of teaching Christian Religious Studies which is for only those that major in religion (Eric and Serwaa, 2023).

Going by the contents of the National Policy on Education (NPE), concerning teacher education in Nigeria, the objectives had sought to place Nigerian education system at the level higher than what it is today. In the system, practicing teachers having NCE which is the minimum qualification were supposed to teach in the Secondary Schools  while those with first degree, masters’ degree as well as doctorate degrees were supposed to teach in secondary schools. But in most cases, reverse is the case and this affect student’s performance.  The influence of qualified teachers on effective teaching and learning of Christian Religious Studies in junior secondary schools.

Since teacher’s qualification in Nigeria such as NCE, B.Ed, M.ED and Phd. supposedly designate attainment of level of knowledge. In other words, academic achievement of teachers in the Nigerian school system is under obligation to acquire this academic qualification to enable teacher effectiveness. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether teachers’ qualification directly influence effective teaching and learning in Christian Religious Studies in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.


1.3  Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study was to examine the influence of qualified teachers on effective teaching and learning of Christian Religious Studies in junior secondary schools in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.

Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. measure or ascertain the effectiveness of a teacher as enhanced by his qualification and experience.
  2. prove whether the students of Nsit Atai are taught Christian Religious Studies by qualified teachers.
  3. determine whether the status of a teacher has any impact on the performance of students in Christian Religious Studies.


1.4  Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will bring to light the relevant of teacher’s qualification in the teaching/learning experience in order to enable school administrators to plan school curriculum effectively.

Secondly, it will help the future researchers on the teaching/learning experience in Christian Religious Studies to have a basis to take off from. The influence of qualified teachers on effective teaching and learning of Christian Religious Studies in junior secondary schools.

Thirdly, the result of the study will enrich the college library on the teaching-learning experience in Christian Religious Studies.

Lastly, the study will serve as a reference point or material for other researchers who may like to carry out research on the similar topic.


1.5  Research Questions

  1. Does teachers’ qualification enhances effectiveness in the teaching learning experience?
  2. Are the students learning Christian Religious Studies in Schools Nsit Atai taught by qualified teachers?
  3. Are the qualifications of the teachers’ teaching Christian Religious Studies in Nsit Atai as specified under the teacher’s hand book and the National Policy on Education (NPE) in Nigeria?


1.6  Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and the performance of studentsin Christian Religious Studies in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.
  2. There is no observable influence of teachers’ qualification on pupil’s performance in Christian Religious Studies in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.
  3. There is no significant relationship between the qualification of teacher’s as specified in the teachers hand book and National Policy on Education (NPE)?


Definition of Terms

Teachers’ Qualification: In brief, this refers to the status, rank or academic level of teachers in the school or educational setting.

School: Academic institution or learning environment in which teaching and learning activities take place.

Formal Education: Education in the school setting (in the classroom).


Informal Education: Education by imitation outside the school (classroom setting).

Concept of Christian Religious Studies: The study of man and his environment.
National Policy on Education:
Official document of the nation on education issues.

Teaching Profession: An aspect of one’s work whose overall task is helping others to gain knowledge.



From the knowledge gained from the study, the teaching/learning system can only said to be effective when the teachers working in the schools are qualified. Consequently, the study has revealed that there is a relationship between academic performance of students in Christian Religious Studies and the qualifications of the teachers. Thus, the higher the teacher goes in the profession the more competent he becomes. The influence of qualified teachers on effective teaching and learning of Christian Religious Studies in junior secondary schools.

Also, the approved teacher’s qualifications according to the teacher’s handbook and the National Policy on Education (NPE) were what teachers in Nsit Atai Local Government Area were operating with. All these are in line with the findings of earlier researcher who had carried out study of this nature.


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Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research.

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