GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Declaration

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

Abstract

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background to the Study

1.2          Statement of the Problem

1.3          Purpose of the Study

1.4          Research Questions

 

1.5          Hypotheses

1.6          Significance of the Study

1.7          Scope/Delimitation of the Study

1.8          Definition of Operational Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1          Design of the Study

3.2          Population of the Study

3.3          Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.4          Research Instrument

3.5          Validity of the Instrument

 

3.6          Reliability of the Instrument

3.7          Administration of the Instrument

3.8          Data Analysis Technique

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1          Analyses of Data Results

4.2          Summary of Major Findings

4.3          Discussion of the Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1          Summary

5.2          Conclusion

5.3          Recommendations

5.4          Suggestions for Further Studies

References

Appendixes

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the study

There has been a sustained concern in society regarding the psychosocial distress that comes along with detachment from home to pursue academic ambitions for both male and female students in secondary schools. John (2021) asserts that the transition from a familiar situation into a new or unfamiliar situation, for example, from home to childcare/preschool, to primary school, or secondary school is characterized by change, tensions and uncertainties. These students may feel physically and psychologically overwhelmed, have doubts about their own ability and hence, developed an avoidant attitude towards their studies. Secondary school students, in particular, grapple with multifaceted challenges inherent in this phase, including academic pressures, identity exploration, peer relationships, and evolving social dynamics.

 

A comprehensive understanding of students’ psycho-social adjustment during this critical phase holds profound implications for their overall well-being, academic achievement, and long-term developmental trajectories.

Furthermore, the psycho-social adjustment of adolescents represents a complex interplay of emotional regulation, social competencies, academic prowess, and behavioral adaptation within their immediate social contexts (Barendse et al., 2020). Thus, this adjustment process is intricately influenced by a myriad of factors, encompassing familial relationships, peer interactions, societal expectations, and individual attributes (Rueger et al., 2010).

 

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

However, extensive research underscores the significant influence of gender norms and societal expectations in shaping the psychosocial experiences of adolescents (Cross & Madson, 1997). Therefore, these prevailing societal norms often dictate and influence the behavioral patterns and emotional expressions exhibited by boys and girls within their social environments, thereby impacting the development of coping mechanisms, social relationships, and emotional well-being (Chaplin & Aldao, 2013). Gender differences in the psychosocial adjustment among secondary school students.

Studies suggest distinct gender-specific trends during adolescence. Females often display heightened emotional intelligence and establish more intricate social networks, fostering closer and more intimate peer relationships (Rose & Rudolph, 2006). In contrast, males may encounter challenges in openly expressing emotions or vulnerability due to prevailing socialization norms that discourage such displays (Kerr & D’Augelli, 2018).

 

Moreover, several researchers seem to agree that these psychosocial challenges if not addressed promptly could severely militate against students’ everyday functioning and worsen their mental health (Duinhof, Stevens, van Dorsselaer, Monshouwer & Vollebergh, 2015; Suyen, 2017).

In addition, , Famakinwa, & Akinnawonu, (2016) confirm that the pressure and adjustments that come with Senior High School life can often be overwhelming for students as most of them have already attained the adolescence status or approaching the developmental stage of adolescence, which has its peculiar disruption. For example, Mumthas & Muhsina (2014) conducted a descriptive study to unravel the psychosocial problems of adolescents at higher secondary level and the findings testified that the students face more problems relating to educational and emotional aspects.  Therefore, this study aimed to examine gender differences in the psychosocial adjustment among secondary school students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem    

Despite the acknowledged significance of gender in adolescent development, there exists a noticeable research gap concerning gender-specific psycho-social adjustments within the secondary school setting. At this stage of life, adolescent is besieged with multifarious challenges such as sex, somatic variations, socio-economic, ego centricism, nervousness, intellectual excitement, argumentation and debating, aggression, day-dreaming, delinquency and social challenges.

Hence, failure to resolve these challenges can lead to psycho-social maladjustment. Thus, these challenges may adversely affect the academic achievement of the adolescent. In recent times, schooling no longer mean much to many adolescents as they are so much engrossed with the psychological and social challenges. Gender differences in the psychosocial adjustment among secondary school students.

Therefore, a society whose adolescents are not academically oriented may be classified as underdeveloped. Consequently, adolescents need to be reintegrated academically into their classes through well thoughts out counselling programmes geared towards improving academic achievement that will foster national development in the long run. This work therefore investigated the gender differences in the psychosocial adjustment among secondary school students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study    

The main purpose of this study is to examine gender differences in the psychosocial adjustment among secondary school students in Ukanafun Local Government Area. Specifically, the study aimed to:

  1. To determine the relationship between psycho-social adjustment and academic achievement among secondary school students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
  2. To find out whether differences exist in the psycho-social adjustment of secondary school students based on gender.
  3. To find out whether differences exist in the academic achievement of secondary school students based on gender.

 

1.4   Research Questions      

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What is the relationship between psycho-social adjustment and academic achievement among secondary school students?
  2. To what extent does differences exist in the psycho-social adjustment of secondary school students based on gender?
  3. Does differences exist in the academic achievement of secondary school students based on gender?

 

1.5   Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant relationship between psycho-social adjustment and academic achievement among secondary school students.
  2. There is no significant difference in the psycho-social adjustment of secondary school students based on gender.
  3. There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of secondary school students based on gender.

 

1.6   Significance of the Study      

The study will be of importance in the following ways:-

  • Firstly, he findings of this study provide insight into gender-specific psycho-social differences among secondary school students, aiding in the understanding and mitigation of disparities.
  • Secondly, findings of this study will enable the development of targeted interventions that cater to the diverse psycho-social needs of male and female students in educational settings.

 

  • Thirdly, insights of this study can inform educational policies, fostering more inclusive and supportive environments conducive to students’ holistic development. Gender differences in the psychosocial adjustment among secondary school students.
  • Furthermore, findings of this study will enlighten the Government and school administrators Tailored interventions can potentially enhance academic outcomes by addressing gender-specific psycho-social challenges impacting learning and achievement.
  • In addition, this study will adds valuable empirical evidence to the discourse on adolescent psycho-social development within educational contexts.
  • Lastly, the study will serve as a reference point or material for other researchers who may like to carry out research on the similar topic.

 

Conclusion

From the findings of this study, it is concluded that students, in terms of gender status differ in psycho-social adjustment. In addition, psychosocial adjustment has a strong prediction on academic achievement. Also, gender differences have influences on psychosocial adjustment and academic achievement.

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