INFLUENCE OF COUNSELING ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

INFLUENCE OF COUNSELING ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV AIDS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
INFLUENCE OF COUNSELING ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV AIDS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

INFLUENCE OF COUNSELING ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

HIV/AIDS was first identified in Nigeria in 1985 and reported at an International Conference in 1986 (Adeyi, 2016). The HIV/AIDS pandemic led to the death of 170,000 Nigerians in 2007 (UNAIDS, 2008). According to Edewor (2020), Nigeria has already surpassed the 5 percent explosive prevalence phase and the disease has killed more than 1.3 million people and orphaned more than 1 million children (FMINO, 2007). The infection rates of HIV/AIDS vary across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria.

 

According to Edewor (2020), the mode of HIV transmission in Nigeria is mainly through unprotected sex, and other factors. Which contribute to the spread of the virus include poverty, Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI), social and religious norms and political and social changes (National AIDS/STD Control Programme, 1999).

Parke and Aggleton (2017) noted that negative social attitudes toward marginalised populations, policies mandating the testing of high risk groups and limited legal protections based on HIV status may exacerbate stigma. They stressed further that increase vulnerability to discrimination complicates the social and psychological adjustment of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).

 

The victims require necessary assistance to be able to live happily and contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. Thus, they need psychosocial supports to be able to cope with their challenges. The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called “deficiency needs” or “d-needs”, esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs.

 

Maslow also coined the term “Meta-motivation” to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment. “Meta-motivated” people are driven by B-needs (Being Needs), instead of deficiency needs (D-Needs) (Wikipedia, 2011). For the purpose of this study, the psychosocial needs adopted comprise physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, aesthetic needs and self-actualization as propounded by Maslow.

 

INFLUENCE OF COUNSELING ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Physiological needs include food, air and water; safety needs involve housing and security. Belongingness implies social interaction and group affiliation; esteem needs involve high regard for self and others. Moreover, aesthetic needs deal with love of beauty while self-actualization involves becoming what one desires to be in life. Since the discovery of HIV/AIDs in the 1980s, more than 20 million people have died from the disease.

 

The disease killed three million people in 2003 and is now the leading cause of death and lost years of productive life for people aged ranging from 15 to 59 worldwide (WHO Report, 2014).

HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a worrisome phenomenon and individual carrier of the infection suffers from several mental health consequences.

 

Stigmatization in any magnitude has multiple effects on the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS and more broadly on members of society, creating disruptions in social functioning, and increasing people’s vulnerability to infection and reducing the overall caring capacity of communities.

 

Stigma is perhaps a pervasive problem that affects health globally, threatening an individual’s psychological and physical well-being. HIV/AIDS epidemic has significant effect on the economic and sociological wellbeing of victims.

 

The psychological aftermaths of HIV test mostly if positive prevent majority of the people in Nigeria and Akwa Ibom State in particular to be tested.

As such, counseling of people living with HIV and how to deal with the psychological as well as the social effects of the infection in the area remains a challenge to counselors and corporate bodies alike. However, the problem of how best to counsel infected people is perturbing. Thus, especially with the rate at which HIV and AIDS are spreading in the state.

 

Statement of the Problem

HIV/AIDS was first identified in Nigeria in 1985 and reported at an International Conference in 1986 (Adeyi et al, 2006).

The HIV/AIDS pandemic led to the death of 170,000 Nigerians in 2007 (UNAIDS, 2008). According to Edewor (2010), Nigeria has already surpassed the 5 percent explosive prevalence phase and the disease has killed more than 1.3 million people and orphaned more than 1 million children (FMINO, 2007).

The infection rates of HIV/AIDS vary across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. It is in this respect that the researcher intend to investigate the effect of counseling on the psychological adjustment of people living with HIV/AIDS.

 

Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to ascertain the influence of group counseling on the psychological adjustment of people living with HIV/AIDS in Secondary Schools.

Specifically, the study tends to determine;

  1. The influence of group counseling on the psychological adjustment of HIV/AIDS patients in Secondary Schools.
  2. The influence of group counseling on the psychological well-being of HIV/AIDS patients in Secondary Schools.
  3. The rational for using group counselling on the psychological and social problems of people living with HIV/AIDS in Secondary Schools.
  4. If there is any difference between the psychosocial adjustment of subjects exposed to group counselling and subject who are exposed to group counselling in Secondary Schools.

 

Significance of the Study

It is believed that at the completion of the study. The findings will be of great importance to HIV/AIDs patient in the country as the study seek to enumerate the benefit of counseling to the general well-being of the Patients.

The study will also be of benefit the medical practitioners and the employees of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As the study laid emphasis on the benefit of counseling and guidance on the life span of HIV/AIDs patient in the country.

The study will also be useful to researchers who intend to embark on research in similar topic.

Finally, the findings of this study will also be immense benefit to government, academia, scholars, researchers and the general public.

 

Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers the effect of counseling on the psychological adjustment of people living with HIV/AIDs in Secondary Schools. It tends to ascertain the influence of group counseling on the psychological adjustment of HIV/AIDS patients. The influence of group counseling on the psychological well-being of HIV/AIDS patients.

 

Research Questions

The study will find answers to the following research questions

  1. What are the influence of group counseling on the psychological adjustment of HIV/AIDS patients in Secondary Schools?
  2. What are the influence of group counseling on the psychological well-being of HIV/AIDS patients in Secondary Schools?
  3. What is the rational for using group counselling on the psychological and social problems of people living with HIV/AIDS in Secondary Schools?
  4. Is there any difference between the psychosocial adjustment of subjects exposed to group counselling and subject who are exposed to group counselling in Secondary Schools?

 

Conclusion

AIDS counselling is the skill of helping people to take important decisions about life, relationships, dying and death. The health and illness patterns of the world’s population are changing, especially with the emergence of ageing populations and increasing life expectancy. There are changes in the patterns and forms of existing diseases as well as the emergence of new ones.

 

The orientation to health and illness has gone beyond thinking of cure as the only major motive of caring. Life involves accepting limitations and living positively within them.

Counselling is caring that goes beyond curing. The issues brought to light by the needs of people with HIV and AIDS, and the people affected by their relationship to those infected, go beyond the disease itself. We are all affected; otherwise the whole world would not be talking about it. Some of the goals of counseling are to help young people understand their sexuality. Also, to make people aware of their rights for sexual negotiation. Especially, where there are problems related to gender difference. To help find solutions to economic problems and to encourage an improved socio-economic status for women.

As well, counselors will aim to facilitate premarital and extramarital communication, and to help in family crises which are part of HIV prevention and control. Counseling can greatly help in the problems that accompany HIV and AIDS. Especially in achieving the effective communication so greatly needed to attain reconciliation with the realities of living, dying and death.

 

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