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MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENT IN TEACHING HOSPITAL UYO

MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENT IN TEACHING HOSPITAL UYO

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ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study was to examine management of dental equipment and instrument in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State. Research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was used in this study. This design describes what exist, as well as the significance and frequency with which something occurs in a defined population at a particular point in time. The population of the study consisted of all health professionals working in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State.

The participants for the study include one hundred (100) health professionals working in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State. They were selected through a purposive sampling technique. The research instruments used for study were self-opinionated questionnaires and SWOT form adapted to the respondents. A SWOT analysis is adapted-a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in ‘management of the dental equipment and instrument’ in the state hospital.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

Globally, a lot of great changes in technology have brought about many changes in the type of equipments, instruments and machines needed for the treatment of patients in hospitals including Uyo teaching hospital and other numerous hospitals in Nigeria at large. As a result of these changes, the management of equipment and instrument requirements have also changed and advanced.

 

According to Bupe Mwanzaa and Charles (2023), with many developments coming to light every day, health care facilities must be prepared to accommodate whatever the future holds. Management of hospital equipment is a cycle that starts with planning, procurement, acquisition, installation, commission, decommissioning and ends with disposal of hospital equipment (Chaminda, 2021).

The hospital equipment management (healthcare technology management) certifies that hospital equipment and other systems used in healthcare are safe, operational and a proper maintenance of the equipment.

 

Without reservation, Health and Medical Equipment are essential and indispensable components in the provision of modern Healthcare Services by facilitating good standard treatment of patients as well as creating enabling conditions that motivate Medical personnel to higher competence.

The importance of medical equipment and the development of related technologies and a major influence in the health‑care system are clearly evident today as the result of medical professionals due to the use of this technology in the prevention, diagnosis, alleviation, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (Ranjbar, Sedehi, Rashidi, Suratgar, 2019).

 

MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENT IN TEACHING HOSPITAL UYO

Moreover, according to Braimoh, Umanah and Ilochonwu (2014), access to oral health care in Nigeria is poor and efforts made to improve access to oral health care in Nigeria have been largely unsuccessful. Adeniyi, Sofola and Kalliecharan (2012) stated that, poor integration of oral health into general health has been the bane of the Nigerian health system despite the seeming progress in oral health evidenced by the introduction of the 2012 Oral health policy.

A few studies found that the system falls short of many desirable attributes. These studies show that the health system is neither efficient nor effective thus available resources in many areas, are overstretched and grossly inadequate (Uguru, Uzochukwu, Uguru and Onwujekwe, 2016). However, in a bid to improve equitable access to oral health care services, The Nigerian government has included oral health care in the National health insurance scheme (Uguru et al., 2016).

Access to oral health care can be referred to as the ability of a patient to use oral health care (Ajayi and Arigbede, 2012). There are many factors that have been known to influence access to oral health care in Nigeria and these can be categorized into contextual and individual factors.

 

The contextual factors include the inability to obtain dental insurance, shortage and mal-distribution of dentists, the cost associated with dental care, insufficient professional input on evidence-based guidelines, Rurality, lack of interdisciplinary collaborations and a complex oral health system that can be difficult to navigate (Bersell, 2017). The individual factors are anxiety and fear associated with dental care, low oral health literacy, perceptions and misconceptions that exist about oral health care.

Olusile (2010), pointed out that to reduce the cost of dental treatment, health insurance should be made available. He further pointed out the role of dentists in the dissemination of oral health education, rural community practice, use of allied or non-dental personnel, volunteers and research. The current study will attempt to identify more contextual factors. Also, find out how most of these factors determine treatment service provision and its overall influence on access.

In many developing countries, the shortage and unequal distribution of dentists mean that carious teeth will remain untreated (Sofola, Folayan and Oginni, 2014). In the majority of Africa, there is little or no access to adequate and proper oral health care.

 

The ratio of dentists to a population (in Africa) is quite low at 1:150,000 when compared with high-income countries with a dentist population ratio of 1:2000 (Vanek, 2017).

Oral diseases affect half of the world’s population with untreated dental caries affecting about 2.3 billion adults worldwide. Yet, oral health is still a neglected area of global health (Ram, Sarkar and Kumar, 2011).

The unequal distribution of oral health personnel and the absence of appropriate facilities in many countries means disadvantaged communities have limited or no access to primary oral health care (Fisher, Selikowitz, Mathur and Varenne, 2018).

 

The importance of ensuring access to adequately trained oral health professionals and using a people-centered healthcare approach as a part of primary healthcare is critical to strengthen oral healthcare systems, and the universal health coverage mantra which proposes that all people have access to essential and quality healthcare without going through financial hardship to pay for it (WHO, 2018).

 

Untreated dental caries in Nigeria at a prevalence of 90% is a huge problem (Adewole, (2016). Similar estimates in Enugu state show prevalence of untreated dental caries at 97%. Utilization of dental services at 15.5% in rural areas and 65.4% in urban areas (Uguru, Uzochukwu, Uguru and Onwujekwe, 2016). This high prevalence of untreated caries with urban rural disparity in utilization, alludes to the inequity in access to oral healthcare services in the state.

Despite the development of this policy, there is minimal impact as implementation rate is low, and a great majority of the population still do not have full coverage for essential oral healthcare services, neither is there any evidence of state level implementation of the policy. This present study aimed to assess the management of dental equipment and instrument in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Undeniably, the activities of dental services in hospital functional, well equipped laboratory and qualified laboratory technician/assistant to handle the tools, manage and maintain dental equipment and instruments in the hospital as a result there can be an effective Dental Health Care Delivery.

Unfortunately, in the developing countries Nigeria inclusive, healthcare delivery system including dental health services do experience challenges of manpower, infrastructures, funding, government policies, and unwillingness of some medical professions to adopt technology and the limitation of their experiences and public perception of our healthcare delivery system among others.

 

Without a doubt, in the recent past years, the importance of dental health services as an integral part of general health has been the subject of interest and body of evidence linking oral health status. However, the management of dental laboratory as a hub for effectiveness and efficiency of dental health care delivery system, require functional and operational laboratory with qualified and well-motivated staffs which have been problems in Nigeria healthcare system that experiences brain-drain, lack of infrastructures, obsolete equipments.

In dental health service or profession, the provisions of adequate equipment and laboratory are crucial to promote and sustain the field of medical profession-management and organization of dental laboratory for effective dental service is indispensable. This present study aimed to assess the management of dental equipment and instrument in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.3    Objective of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine management of dental equipment and instrument in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the study aimed to examine:

  1. To assess the state of dental equipment and instrument for dental health services in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State
  2. To assess the extent of the management of dental equipment and instrument as it affect the quality of dental health services Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State.
  3. To assess strength, weakness, opportunities and threat (SWOT) of the dental laboratories services for the effectiveness of dental healthcare delivery system in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.4   Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested:

(1)     Ho- The statuses of the dental equipment and instruments will not significantly influence dental healthcare delivery system in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State

Ha- The statuses of the dental equipment and instruments will significantly influence dental healthcare delivery system in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State

(2)     Ho-The management of the dental equipment and instruments will not significantly influence dental healthcare delivery system in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State

Ha-The management of the dental equipment and instruments will significantly influence dental healthcare delivery system in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.5   Significance of the Study

This research work would give appropriate evaluation the management of dental equipment and instruments in Teaching Hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State and other public and private hospitals in the environment.

The findings of this study can guide best practices to assist with understanding proper management of dental equipment and instruments.

These finding will also serve as materials which can be used by health promoters and educators in giving effective health education which will help to broaden specialists knowledge about the management of dental equipment and instruments.

Lastly, the Governments will also benefit from this study by using the recommendations and suggestions from this study to take necessary action so as to help the target group.

1.6    Limitation of the Study

Some of the challenges encountered while conducting the research include insufficient funds, insufficient of related research materials and short duration assigned for the study.

 

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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in projectboss.com.ng (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is lawsonpeter10@gmail.com. My personal number; +2347068634102

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