IMPROVISED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS UTILIZATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS STUDIES

IMPROVISED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS UTILIZATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS STUDIES
IMPROVISED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS UTILIZATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS STUDIES

IMPROVISED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS UTILIZATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS STUDIES

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgements

 

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE:     INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

 

1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO:    REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

 

3.5       Instrumentation

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2           Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study

References

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Business Education is one of the curriculum subjects for junior secondary education. At this level it is called business studies and specialist teachers are provided to teach this subject. Moreover, junior secondary education is the education a child receives immediately after primary education.

At this stage the student is provided with requisite basic knowledge and skills for both entrepreneurship and educational advancement. Students are also assisted to develop patriotic competency that will contribute to their social development for performance of their civic responsibilities.

 

This level of education also instills in the youth the rightful values and morals that will make them become efficient in the world of work and productive in the society. It also indicates in youths rightfully business competence and skills irrespective of their differences in endowment, religion, colour, ethnic and socio-economic background (Federal Republic of Nigeria – FRN, 2013).

 

IMPROVISED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS UTILIZATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS STUDIES

However, Ibeneme (2016) found out that business studies/education is the backbone of an industry. In fact, those who make things happen in industry are products of business education that include the managers, accountants, secretariats, marketers, and sales representatives, among others. Indeed, this fact requires that business studies teachers acquaint learners with up-to-date knowledge and happenings in the industry for effective teaching through the use of instructional materials.

Specifically, business studies is the type of education that prepares youths to acquire first-hand business information, skills and competencies that will enable them become functional in the society.

 

All topics taught in this subject area should be accorded with the requisite instructional materials that will enable students experience the real life teachings. For instance, a teacher should utilize the typewriter, computer, model office, filling accessories, cash book, balance sheet, stall file cabinet and other office gadgets while teaching topics related to office practices and management for students to experience the reality of teaching or the lesson presented in the classroom.

Instructional materials as defined by Nzewi and Nwosu (2019) are teaching materials which includes printed and non-printed materials such as textbooks, journals, computers, chalkboard, among others, that support teachers’ instructional delivery in school. Improvised instructional materials utilization and academic performance of students in business studies.

Instructional materials are vital and useful in teaching business studies in secondary schools. The researcher in this present study described teacher utilization of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Business Studies as those devices, materials, equipment or a gadget, used by teachers to support their teaching create understanding of their teachings and facilitates students’ learning in Business Studies.

 

The use of instructional materials according to Sale (2016) will aid effective teaching delivery at the junior secondary schools. Obviously, teacher utilization will aid to improve students’ learning in the classroom. They are instruments used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners. To Onajite and Aina (2014) utilization of instructional materials will improve both teaching students’ learning towards achieving measurable objectives in Business Education.

Indeed, teaching as an important task of the teachers should enable them to improve students’ learning by using various instructional materials in the classroom to teach Business Studies. Undeniably, effective teaching requires individuals who are academically able and care about the well being of the children.

In fact, uncoordinated acquisition of teaching materials in this subject at secondary schools that bear no relevance to the curriculum results in wastage of resources.

However, student’s perception of the subject as being practically oriented need materials to be used in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, this study aimed to examine improvised instructional materials utilization and academic performance of students in business studies.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem     

Teaching Business Studies at junior secondary schools has become a difficult task. However, this is evident in the way and manner Business Studies subject is taught in the secondary schools in the study area.

Moreover, in most of the secondary schools in this study area, teachers encounter a lot of difficulties in teaching this subject and this have affected many students offering the subject and their academic performance. This situation which is worrisome for both the researcher and other education stakeholders like the business studies teachers and principals of schools needs urgent measures to be taken in order to salvage this problem. Improvised instructional materials utilization and academic performance of students in business studies.

 

Furthermore, observations show that in many secondary schools, improvised instructional materials aids in effective instructional delivery. This is because the application of such materials makes students learning of Business Studies interesting, experiential and practical in order to acquire more knowledge for high academic achievement in the subject.

 

Thus, this calls for the need on the use of improvised instructional materials to teach many topics in Business Studies. This is because some topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional materials to make the lesson practical. Balogun (2012) stated that, using the improvised instructional materials, a student is expected to get the greatest satisfaction in the classroom during teaching.

Unfortunately, it has been found that most Business Studies teachers have not been using the improvised instructional materials and as such, students are the worse heat in both internal and external examinations. Therefore, it was based on these problems that the researcher’s interest is to examine improvised instructional materials utilization and academic performance of students in business studies.

 

1.3     Purpose of the Study

This study aimed to examine improvised instructional materials utilization and academic performance of students in business studies. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to:

  1. Find out the academic performance of students taught Business Studies with the use of improvised instructional materials and those taught without the use of improvised instructional materials.
  2. Examine the academic performance of students taught Business Studies with the use of non-printed improvised instructional materials and those taught without the use of non-printed improvised instructional materials.

 

1.4     Significance of the Study

The use of improvised instructional materials gives the learners opportunity to touch, see and where possible smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, the study of this nature is significant to:

Teachers: The study would enhance teachers teaching effectiveness and productivity in classroom. This is because a teacher who makes use of appropriate improvised materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance student’s innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.

Educational System and Society at Large: This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with improvised instructional materials and the learners will learn effectively, the students will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government economic policies and activities and perform economically better in the choice of life and work. Improvised instructional materials utilization and academic performance of students in business studies.

Furthermore, the findings from this study shall provide relevant information as regards to the skills of producing and utilizing locally made instructional materials to the classroom teachers for effective teaching-learning process of learning Business studies. Finally, the teacher training colleges, college of education and other institutions directly or indirectly concerned with training of teachers will derive benefits from this study.

 

1.5     Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. To what extent does academic performance of students taught Business Studies with the use of improvised instructional materials differ from those taught without the use of improvised instructional materials?
  2. How does academic performance of students taught Business Studies with the use of non-printed improvised instructional materials differ from those taught without the use of non-printed improvised instructional materials?

 

1.6     Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference between academic performance of students taught Business Studies with the use of improvised instructional materials and those taught without the use of improvised instructional materials.
  2. There is no significant difference between academic performance of students taught Business Studies with the use of non-printed improvised instructional materials and those taught without the use of non-printed improvised instructional materials.

 

Definition of Terms

Instructional Materials: This refers to all the resources in the learning environment which makes learning experiences concrete with the view to stimulate student’s creativity and interest in the learning situation such as chart and re-alia.

Improvised Instructional Materials: These are materials provided by teachers and used for teaching in the absence of ready-made instructional materials.

Utilization: In brief, the act of using instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Business Studies to achieve the stated objectives.

Printed Materials: These are materials printed on papers and used for teaching/learning processes like newspapers, journals, textbooks etc.

 

Non-Printed Materials: Are those materials that do not necessarily require electronic devices to discriminate or impart learning /instruction to the learners.

Academic Performance: In brief, this refers to the students’ level of attainment in the school work, assignment, test and examination scores.

Business Studies: Is the subject that prepares youths to acquire first-hand business information, skills and competencies that will enable them become functional in the society.

 

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