Voters’ Behavior and Electoral Process in Nigeria 4th Republic

Voters’ Behavior and Electoral Process in Nigeria 4th Republic

DISCOUNT Sales!!! Get complete material at 45 percent Discount TODAY - Pay 1350 instead of ₦3000. Call/WhatsApp 07068634102



Title Page





Table of Contents


1.1          Background to the Study

1.2          Statement of the Problem

1.3          Purpose of the study

1.4          Significance of the study

1.5          Research Hypotheses

1.6          Delimitation of the study

1.8          Limitation of the study

1.9          Definition of Terms




3.1          Research Design

3.2          Research Area

3.3          Population of the study

3.4          Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5          Instrumentation

3.6          Instrument Validity

3.7          Administration of the Instrument

3.8          Method of Data Analysis


4.1          Data Presentation and Analysis

4.2          Discussion of Findings



5.1          Summary

5.2          Conclusion

5.3          Recommendations

5.4          Suggestion for Further Study





This study was conducted on voters’ behavior and electoral process in Nigeria 4th Republic. The researcher formulated three research hypotheses which serve as a guide. The survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was all the voters with permanent voters’ cards in the study area. This was 27994 spread among 10 wards and 47 polling units.

The sample size was 300 voters from six political wards selected using simple random sampling technique. Moreover, the Voters’ Behaviour and Electoral Process Questionnaire (VEP) was used as an instrument for data collection.

The data collected was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Findings revealed that voters’ turnout, violence and election rigging relates significantly with electoral process.




1.1          Background to the Study

Nigeria became an independent nation on 1st October 2010. At independence, the country inherited from the British; a parliamentary system of government, three unequal regional political structures of the North, West and East (carved out of the old Northern and Southern protectorates), and the legacy of traditional administrative system at different levels of political development (Gberevbie, 2009). For instance, between the period of pre-colonial, era and Nigeria’s independence in 2010. While, the North practiced absolute monarchical traditional system with full executive powers conferred on the monarch. The West practiced a monarchical traditional system that did not confer full executive powers on the monarch.

The East on the other hand practiced republican system, which did not recognize the authority of the monarchy in any form Okelegbe1988).


In Nigeria, the selection of the leaders is becoming problematic as there is no equality in the distribution of people in the country. Therefore, the liberal democratic theory sees election as a viable mechanism for consummating representative government and voting is the main form of political participation in democratic societies. The electoral ideas have developed alongside with the democratic idea though it has had a turbulent time attracting general acceptability in human society.


In its development, the granting of franchise was first to a small privileged group in the society usually based on the membership of an estate. However, age restriction is still in most democracies, only citizens that are eighteen years can vote in some countries like Nigeria and USA while some other countries have fixed theirs at twenty or twenty-one years (Nnabuihe, Aghemalo and Okebugwu, 2014).

Election is believed to serve several purposes in a democracy where everyone has the opportunity to participate in politics; it is used to gauge the political health of a society or government by serving as a stamp of legitimacy for the government of the day. At the same time, election acts as checks on the government, since the elected are aware that they may not be re-elected for another term unless they fulfilled their electoral promises to the satisfaction of the electorate who gave their mandate (Omotalo, 2011).  It means of bringing periphery into the political arena (Dowse and Hughes, 2012).


However, an opposing view sees elections as merely ̳symbolic in character. According to this position, elections are a secular ritual of democracy (Niemi and Weisberg, 2016). This view is in opposition to the one which holds that voters are intelligent and informed about their choice of candidates and that voters vote as a fulfillment of their civic duty. Voters are aid to know next to nothing about the candidates is irrelevant to governance.

In Nigeria as a democratic state, voting for leaders has remained a hallmark for political participation. Thus the voters and the candidates know the importance of voting. Which enable the candidate to go into offices of his choice and since voting is regarded as a rational act and voters are seen as rational decision makers. Thus, they balance the cost of voting against its benefits. Therefore, the candidates and political party will try to make sure that they win the public office by influencing the behavior of the voters.

Experience in this country has shown that the character of the candidates do not appear to be very importance consideration while running for public office.


However, there is an indicative evidence of decline in voters’ participation in the electoral process. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the sources of this low turnout and thereby proffering solutions to the problem. Therefore, it is from this background that this present study intends to investigate voters’ behaviour and electoral process in Nigeria’s 4th Republic.


Voters’ Behavior and Electoral Process in Nigeria 4th Republic

1.2          Statement of the Problem

Political participation involves membership of a political party, involvement in political campaigns, contributions to political debates, funding political activities and contesting elections.

Despites the importance of voters in the electoral process, their participation is seen to have been deteriorating using the turnout in the 2023 electoral process where only 36.34% of the registered voters participate in the voting process. The electoral process also witnessed thuggery, killing of people, burning of election materials and rigging making the voters turn out to be poor.

The researcher is of the view that these problems of electoral rigging, thuggery and violence experienced if not attended to may cause the voters from abstaining from voting in the forth-coming election and may also result in an inconclusive election in the area. The low voters’ turn out as experience in the area may also lead to the selection of wrong leaders in the area. This backdrop therefore motivated the researcher to investigate into voters’ behavior and electoral process in Nigeria 4th Republic.


1.3          Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate voters’ behavior and electoral process in Nigeria 4th Republic. Specifically, the objectives of the study are:

(i)            examine the effect of voters’ turnout on the electoral process

(ii)           investigate the effect of voters’ violence on the electoral process

(iii)          examine the effect of election rigging on the electoral process


1.4          Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will help in advancement of knowledge and acquisition of skills to help in indoctrinating in the new generation good political culture and orientation. Furthermore, this study will help in providing information to the state independent electoral commission INEC on the roles of voters in the electoral process. The findings of this study shall also reveal to them the need for absolute political socialization of the grassroots.

In addition, the study findings shall assist the media in knowing the need for strict used of their profession in the dissemination and spread of political culture and orientation.  Moreover, the findings of this study shall aid in developing the culture of for voting people based on what they can do. Also, this study will serve as a source of data for future researchers on related topics.


1.5          Research Hypotheses  

(i)            There is no significant relationship between voters’ turnout and the electoral process.

(ii)           There is no significant relationship between voters’ violence and the electoral process.

(iii)          There is no significant relationship between election rigging and the electoral process.


1.6         Limitation of the Study

In writing a research of this nature, the following limitations were stumble upon:

(i)            Some of the voters were reluctant in participating in the study for the fear of given out information that may affect them in future. To overcome this, the researcher avoid of use personal names while collecting information for the study.

(ii)           Also difficulty on the part of the INEC official in the Local Government Secretariat giving out information on the activities that went on in the past elections.


1.7         Definition of Terms

Voter: This is a person who is eligible to vote someone into office in an election.

Electoral Process: These are those activities involved during the process of choosing of people to represent them at the Local, State and Federal level of government by voting.


Election Rigging: This is the act of manipulating the electoral process for personal gain by political leaders; these ranges from snatching of ballot boxes to multiple voting.

Election Thuggery: This is the process of hiring people by candidates to treat other candidates and voters violently and roughly during electoral process.

Money Politics: This is the act of using money in politics to manipulate the electoral process.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

Related Articles

Back to top button
Open chat
Scan the code
Hello 👋
Welcome to projectboss 24/7customer services.