UTILIZATION OF CHARTS AND MODELS ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENT IN BIOLOGY

UTILIZATION OF CHARTS AND MODELS ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENT IN BIOLOGY
UTILIZATION OF CHARTS AND MODELS ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENT IN BIOLOGY

UTILIZATION OF CHARTS AND MODELS ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENT IN BIOLOGY

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE:       

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the study

1.2    Statement of the problem

1.3    Purpose of the study

1.4    Significant of the study

1.5    Research Hypotheses

1.6    Delimitation of the study

1.7    Limitation of the study

1.8    Operational Definition of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Concept of Charts and Models

2.2    Charts and models utilization and academic achievement of Students

2.3    Gender difference and academic achievement of students

2.4    Summary of Literature review

 

CHAPTER THREE  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Research Area

3.2    Research design

3.3    Population of the study

3.4    Sample and sampling technique

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

3.6    Validation of instrument

3.7    Administration of the instrument

3.8    Scoring of instrument

3.9    Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  

DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Data presentation

4.2    Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: 

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestion for further Studies

References

Appendix

 

ABSTRACT

The study was designed to investigate the utilization of charts and models on academic achievement of student in biology. One hundred and twenty SS2 students were randomly selected from six secondary schools out of all SS2 students from eleven public schools in Etinan Local Government Area for the study. However, a quasi-experimental designed was adopted for the study. Thus, a Biology Performance Test (BPT) was the instrument for data collection.

Thereafter, statistical tools used were independent t-test. Finding shows that students taught using charts and models performed significantly better than those taught without charts and models utilization and that there was no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught using models.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

Indeed, education is regarded as machinery for the acquisition of knowledge and skills, it consist of two components which are inputs and outputs. However, according to Coombs (1970) in Effiong (2014) inputs consists of human and material resources and outputs form a dynamic organic whole. Without a doubt, the fall in the standard or quality of education is attributed to many factors.

 

UTILIZATION OF CHARTS AND MODELS ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENT IN BIOLOGY

In brief, charts and models have been used extensively in education to help clarify some of the answers researchers have found that might shed light on such question as. “How do students learn effectively?” or “What is happening in a particular classroom. That facilitates learning better than in another classroom?”.

 

Moreover, Carol (1963) in Effiong (2015) proposed that the time by students to learn academic content in contingent upon aptitude. (The most often use measures is the ability to understand the instruction presented). (The extent to which the posses prerequisite is known) and the quality to disheartening. To see that practicing teachers do not continue to use teaching materials after teaching practice. The need for the use of concrete materials to facilitate learning in students cannot be over emphasize.

 

Teacher should always bear in mind that the purpose of any worthwhile instructional materials is to communicate effectively and Cleary. Instructional material should be used when presenting lesson as this will quicken the retention of concepts better than abstract.

Models and charts should incorporate all teaching resources which provide direct and concrete experience. Thereby, reducing abstraction during instructional process (Nicholas, 2015). According to Effiong (2014), the use of instructional materials during teaching and learning. Thus, can concretized and fasten the process and in turn increases the performances of students in Biology.

 

Frazer (2011) further extent on an effective and efficient learning depends to a greater extent on an effective communication between the teacher and the learners in a Biology class. Effective interaction and sharing of meaning between the teacher with the aid of instructional materials. Teachers therefore, should be able to change their learners view and minds to learn through effective instructional communication.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problems 

Education is seen as machinery education through which acquisition of knowledge and skills is achieved. Such that every nation is gearing towards the provision of quality education for her citizens. This qualify education is evidenced on the performance of students in external examinations. Such as West Africa School Certificate Examination (WASCE).

Unfortunately, it is observed by Udom (2014) that the academic performance of most learners fall bellow expectation in WAEC examination in 2014 with 529,425 candidates representing 31.28 percent obtaining five credits and above. Including mathematics and English Language out of a total of 1,605248 candidates who registered for the examination. The author further attributed this fallen standard to many factors among. Which are home factors, environmental factors, peer group influence, teaching methodology, teaching variables and many others. The utilization of charts and models on academic achievement of student in biology.

 

However, Popool (2003) and Wales (2005) in Effiong (2015) have reported positive effects of the use of models and charts on performance of students in other aspects of science like mathematics and physics while Effiong (2015) reported a positive effect of charts and models utilization on students’ academic performance.

This raised the question, could the use of chart and models also improve performance of students in Biology in Etinan Local Government Area? This motivated the researcher to carry out this research in order to provide answer to this question.

 

1.3    Purpose of the Study

Generally, the study sought to investigate the the utilization of charts and models on academic achievement of student in biology. In Etinan Local Government Area. To achieve the above general purpose, the study specifically intends to:

  1. Examine the effectiveness of the use of charts and models on the academic achievement of students in biology in Etinan Local Government Area.
  2. Assess whether there could be any significant difference in academic achievement between male and female students when taught biology using charts and models.

 

1.4    Significant of the Study

  • Firstly, the findings of this study will help government to know the need for the provision of quality and quantity facilities adequate for biology teaching to enhance teaching and learning effectiveness. The utilization of charts and models on academic achievement of student in biology.
  • Secondly, to the educational administrators, the findings of this study will help in developing curricular. that will help future science teacher in the selection of relevant instructional materials for the teaching of Biology.

 

  • Thirdly. to the society, it will help in assisting the government in the provision of relevant instructional materials for the teaching- learning of biology.
  • To the teachers, it will enhance innovative thinking, creativity and resourcefulness among biology teachers as they will have to think of selecting relevant instructional materials for their lesson delivery.
  • To the students, the use of charts/models in the teaching of biology will improve their participation during the teaching process which will indirectly increase their academic performance in biology in secondary schools.

 

1.5     Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of students taught biology using charts and models and those taught without charts and models.
  2. There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female biology students taught using charts and models and those taught without charts and models.

 

1.6    Limitation of the Study

The researcher had difficulty in administering the research instrument on the selected schools due to the location of the schools. Also, lack of time due to the researchers’ workload and financial constraints were the major factors that affected this study.

 

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms

Charts: A combination of graphic and pictorial media designed for the orderly and logically visualizing of relationship between key facts or ideas.

Models: A model is a visual aid or pictures which highlight the main ideas and variables in a process or a system. It is a recognizable 3 — dimensional likeness of representation of the real object.

Academic Achievement: In brief, this refers to the students’ scores or result in the biology achievement test.

Biology: Is the study of life (plants and animals).

 

CONCLUSION

Base on the finding of this study, the following conclusion were drawn. Charts and models are very important in the teaching and learning process and as such, for effective teaching to take place, it is necessary to be adopted by the teachers in the impartation of knowledge to the learners.

The use of charts and models in teaching and learning of biology help to motivate the students and increase class participation. Finally, charts and models have positive effects on the academic achievement of students when they are used properly in the teaching and learning process.

 

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