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Title page





Table of contents



1.1    Background to the study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the study

1.4    Significance of the study

1.5    Research Questions

1.6    Delimitation of the study

1.7    Limitation of the study

1.8    Definition of terms




3.1    Research Design

3.2    Area of the Study

3.3    Population of the study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

3.6    Validation of Instrument

3.7    Administration of Instrument

3.8    Method of Data Analysis





4.1    Presentation of Result

4.2    Discussion of findings




5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion







1.1   Background to the Study

Truancy and academic performance are two critical factors that significantly impact the educational outcomes of secondary school students. This study aims to explore the relationship between truancy and academic performance specifically in the subject of biology among secondary school students.

Truancy is a complex issue that can have detrimental effects on students’ overall academic achievement. Chronic absenteeism due to truancy can lead to gaps in learning and knowledge acquisition, which may ultimately result in lower academic performance. The subject of biology, with its emphasis on scientific concepts and critical thinking skills, requires consistent attendance and engagement for students to grasp complex biological principles effectively.

In the conception of Stoll (2023), truancy refers to a situation whereby a student is absent from school for no legitimate reason.  He went further to say that many students do skip either a single lesson or even a full day of school at least once during their academic life.

According to Huzinga & Thornberry (2021), truancy is defined as having an unexcused absence from school for one or more part of the days for a least three school days during five day school week Salford (2018), defined truancy as the act when a student, who is believed to have been at school, fail to attend school classes without the permission or awareness of the parents on the school authority concerned.


However, student who engage in truancy might have found life in classroom dull boring and uninteresting. Also, they must have found greater pleasure and interest in activities outside the school and classroom environment. Such students usually leave their homes giving everybody the impression that they have gone to school, but stopped on the way side to participate in what they like to enjoy most. This they do until it is time for school dismissal and the return home.

In addition, some others are caught playing around the street within other truants, engaging in gambling and loitering around the school premises. This is because some truants get scared of some unfriendly treatment for teachers, unpleasant encounters during classroom work, unnecessary harassment and embarrassment by the senior students, these leads to loss of interest in academics in the classroom by the students.

Furthermore, truancy, leads to poor academic achievement at the end of the school periods, school term and school year. Thus, truancy is a threat to academic achievement of student. It leads to the fall of educational standard in school. It increases the rate of examination malpractice and poor examination result of both internal and external examinations. Truancy is also a factor that contributes to idleness, joblessness, unemployment, and underemployment of most adult today, just because they engage in the act of truancy during their school days.

Nevertheless, the aim of this work is to investigate truancy and academic performance of secondary school students in biology.


1.2   Statement of the Problem

Without a doubt, indiscipline among students is a perennial problem. Indeed, one common discipline problem found globally is truancy.

Davies and Lee (2023) found that school students are inclined not to go to school or choose not to attend certain classes during the school hours. Indeed, what is of concern is that the spread of the truancy problem has given rise to various moral and social problems among student.


This cannot be treated lightly, because in-study has shown that truancy nearly topics the list of act of misbehavior among students. This problem of absenteeism is regardless of gender, race, and religion.

The act of truancy among students occurs when there is an attitude problem among students towards schooling to seek knowledge. The issue is students who stay away from school without permission will not only be left behind in learning process. But worse still they will probably end up in drug abuse, gangsterism, alchohol consumption, free set, gambling and loitering.

Certainly, playing truants is a discipline problem and where these truants go to and what they do during the time of their absence from school are related concern. The study will therefore attempt to examine truancy and academic performance of secondary school students in biology.


1.3    Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research was to investigate truancy and academic performance of secondary school students in biology. The specific objectives are:-

  1. To investigate the effect of truancy on students academic achievement in secondary school.
  2. To investigate the effect of truancy on student’s academic achievement in secondary school based gender.


1.4   Significance of the Study

  • To school administrators, this study will help examine the various causes and consequences of truancy and state the ways of curbing it which will serve as a vital instrument for effective school administration.
  • To parents, this study will equally give parents an insight on how and why their wards engage in truancy.


  • The study will also be immense value to graduate and undergraduate students who are studying administration in the field of education as it will give them an insight on how to handle truant students. Truancy and academic performance of secondary school students in biology.
  • Lastly, with this, proper guidance and counseling will be giving to them to enable them make the best out of education.


1.5   Research Questions

To guide the proper conduct of this study, the following research questions were raised:

  1. To what extent does truancy affect the academic achievement of secondary school students?
  2. What are the causes of truancy on student academic achievement in secondary school?


Definition of Terms

Truancy: The process of staying away from school without permission. In other words, it is the act of staying away from school without a reasonable excuse.

Academic Achievement: In brief, it is the level of knowledge or skill attained by the students in a given subject usually designated by a score or grade obtained by the students.



From the findings of this study, it would be inferred that truancy enhances negative academic performance in students in secondary school.

Truancy is one of the fundamental aspects of indiscipline that is more pronounced among secondary school students which has in one way or the other thwarted the aims and goals of secondary education in Nigeria.


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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is My personal number; +2347068634102

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