theme of superstitious belief in bayo adebowale’s faceless and amma darko’s lonely days

theme of superstitious belief in bayo adebowale’s faceless and amma darko’s lonely days
theme of superstitious belief in bayo adebowale’s faceless and amma darko’s lonely days


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This piece of the research work allows us to imagine the disastrous situation which prevailed in Nigeria and Kenya. The two countries where so shakened by political, economic and social problems in that writer such as Amma Darko and Bayo Adebowale could not stand such exploitation unfolding before their very eyes without denouncing it. These writers, put the blame on the capitalist system which is the sign post of domination and exploitation.

Amma Darko who is known as a committed writer like Bayo Adebowale gives a true protragal of Kenya lamentable state in faceless. He believes that the conolizeers are doing contrary to their so called civilizing. Missions which they so much proclaims in Africa have only come to exploit and mislead the people after the independence. The new leaders set up a system that continued what the colonial rulers had been doing, meaning Ill treatment and exploitation of the poor masses.

In both novels, the under privileged class of masses is stripped of their means of production. They are the ones who are deprived of their properties and no one does to rebel against them.

The motive of these two writers is to write against the exploitation and colonialism that prevails in the newly independent countries. And the general moods of desperateness leads people into forming groups of rebel and denounce their dad living condition.

In faceless lonely days masses are mobilized by committed a leader who intends to break the silence and heard all around the world through their united efforts and action as well as efficient leadership.


Theme of superstitious belief in bayo adebowale’s faceless and amma darko’s lonely days



1.1 Background to the Study

Superstitious beliefs and exploitation are the major focus of this research. It should however be born in mind that whenever they occur in the society they take various ways and forms. According to the needs and aspiration of the people in the larger society and indeed Africa as world.


In many parts of the African society today, superstition beliefs, humiliation, exploitation and struggle for survival has eaten deep into the heart of the Africans. This has become an important problem that requires urgent solution

Bayo Adebowales lonely Days and Amma Darko’s Facaless are exemplified. As those texts that expose the vices of superstitious beliefs, humiliation, exploitation and struggle for survival in the domain of the Africans.

Applying this to Bayo Adebowale’s lonely Days and Amma Darko’s Faceless. One will find the work fitting in to the frame work of maxism.


Maxism whose theory about the African society is a ncall. To over flow dictatorship of the Africans or men (the exploiters) and force the women.


Therefore, revolution serves as one of the element of maxism. Other element includes protest against violence and struggle for survival of all kind.

Adebowale’s lonely Days deflect the physical by the men. Yareemi the heroine of the novel serves as a clear victim by the state of superstitious beliefs.

Similarly, in Amma Darko’s faceless the heroine of the novel is Baby T which also a victim of superstious beliefs, exploitation. Baby dies as a result of the beating.


It is against this back drop that this research work shall examine the theme of superstitious beliefs in Bago Adebowale’s lonely Days and Amma Darko’s faceless.


1.2 Statement of the problem

It is quit disheartening and unfortunate to have observed over the years that the African society is still being riddled with superstitious belief, exploitation. In spite of numerous functions performed by literature in our schools system to sanitize the society of these vices.


Regrettably, the curt of the matter is that so many people in the world today. View superstitious beliefs and exploitation as a necessary shortcut for taking advantage on the widows in a particular family.

Therefore, it is against this background of pervasive exploitation and superstitious beliefs. It’s effect on the women and the entire society in general. The researcher is wholly committed, to carrying out the research study in order to probe into the literary works. With the view to identifying, and exposing. How the study of literature in schools can serve as a panacea to superstitious belief and exploitation in our society.


1.3 Significance of the study

The study is significant because of the following reasons.

It will serve as a panacea to the prevalent problems of superstitious beliefs, humiliation, exploitation, struggle for survival and other vices in our society.

Secondly, it will help to promote the interest of the students, teachers, school guidance, counselors and the entire African society in literary studies.

Thirdly, it will help the teachers of the subject in the choice of instructional materials for the lesson and also enable them utilize the materials properly.


Also, it will help or serve as a stepping stone to students in the department of English and literary studies who may wish to carry out further research on this topic to do so with ease.


1.4 Purpose of the study 

The study intends to do the following:

Explore, identify and expose the role of literature as a panacea to superstitious beliefs and exploitation.

Enumerate useful criteria for sanitizing the African society of vices such as superstitious beliefs and exploitation.

Examine critically and expose the factors responsible for superstitious beliefs and exploitation in our school and the African society at large.


1.5 Scope and delimitation

The research work sets out to explore the theme of superstitious belief in Bayo Adebowale’s lonely Days and Amma Darko’s faceless.


1.6 Research Methodology

The study will be mainly literary based research. The two text chosen as a case study will be used as primary sources while other information from the internet, published and unpublished articles. Journals, copied of earlier project from the library and other related sources will be examined.


Theme of superstitious belief in bayo adebowale’s faceless and amma darko’s lonely days

1.7 Bio-Data of the Authors    


1.7.1 Bayo Adebowale

Bayo Adebowale was born in Adeyipo village, lagelu Local Government Area of Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. On 6th June 1944, to a peasant farmer and traditional drummer, Alagba Ayanlads Aladipupo Akangbe Adebowale. His mother madam Abigail Ayannihun atunwa Adebowale is a traditional Rara chanter and dancer. Hails from nergbouring Apon Onilu village, Oyo state.


Bayo Adebowale attended St. Andrew’s kindergarten school at Kufi 1 village. And St. Andrew’s senior primary school, Bawgbola, igbo- Elerin District of Ibadan, where he obtain his Grade A primary school leaving certificate in December, 1955.


In 1959, he becomes a pupil teacher at ST. Mathias Primary school, Busogboro, olugole local government Area, Ibadan. He was headmaster of St. Micheal’s Primary school, Eko-Ajula, near Ikirun, Osun state, from January 1962 to December 1964.


In 1966 the year of Nigerian’s military coup, Bayo Adebowale gained admission to Baptist collage, Ede for his higher elementary Grade 11 Teacher Training programme, which his finished in 1967 with merit in ten subjects, including English language English literature and music.


At Baptist collage, Ede, Adebowale’s creativity boomed. He was a collage house prefect, the secretary literary and Debating society, and the editor of the collage magazine, the Echo. Also, he was a voracious reader of English and African novels, an ardent reader of the works of great writers.


In addition, he graduated Bachelor of Arts (Hon.) English in 1974 and had his national youth service corps at ST. Augustine’s Teacher’s Collage, Lafia, Benice-Plateau State, Northern Nigeria, from July 1974 to July 1975.


Today, Bayo Adebowale is most well-known as a novelist. His third novel, lonely days is probably his most ambitious literary Endeavour to date.


The novel predictably a deal with an important aspect of the African culture-widowhood-and has its setting, predictably also, in African rural environment.


1.7.2 Amma Darko

Amma Darko was born in Koforidua, Ghana, and grew up in Accra. She studied in Kumasi, where she received her diploma in 1980. The she worked for the science and technology centre in Kumasi.


During the 1980s, she lived and worked for some time in Germany. She has since returned to Accra. His novels illustrate everyday life in Ghana.

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