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THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY

THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study

1.5    Research Hypotheses

 

1.6    Delimitation of the Study

1.7    Limitation of the Study

1.8    Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY   

3.1    Area of the Study

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5    Instruments for Data Collection

 

3.6    Validation of the Instrument

3.7    Administration of the Instrument

3.8    Scoring of the Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Results

4.2    Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestions for further Studies

References

35 Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

The influence of instructional materials utilization in promoting students’ academic performance via teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable. Moreover, the teaching of Biology in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled.

Indeed, the materials used by teachers to teach and drive home the  subject points at the primary and secondary levels of our educational system is incontrovertibly a paramount important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful (Ijaduola, 2022).

However, instructional materials are materials which assist teachers to make lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola, 2022).

 

THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY

Instructional material include both visuals and audio-visuals such as pictures, flash-cards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as a supplement to the normal processes of instruction.

Macauley (2021), observed that, Biology is an important subject that must be obtained at credit level by students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution especially the University to study relevant courses like Accountancy, Business Administration, insurance etc. the importance and technicality of this subject makes it necessary that relevant instructional materials should be used to teach the learners. He also asserted that visual aids make lesson come alive and help students to learn better.

 

According to Cronbac (2017), the use of instructional materials during teaching and learning process can appeal to the individual attention among students by creating interest in order to attain the goal for the learner.

The fact that goals direct efforts, the teacher’s problem of motivation is essentially one way of arranging situation with instructional material in order for the learner to see the goals he want to attain. He also noted that, the use of instructional materials can facilitate the decision of a person towards taking right actions.

In fact, if instructional material is use to teach Biology, the prediction would be rewarding and consequences will justify the work done by person, he will feel full satisfaction.

 

In addition, Moronfola (2022) pointed out that instructional materials are normally chosen to meet the teaching requirement of an approved curriculum.

Thus, in the educational development, selection and acquisition of instruction materials for teaching of Biology, the relevance of such materials for the contents of the curriculum must be ensured. Uncoordinated acquisition of teaching materials in this subject at secondary schools that bear no relevance to the curriculum results in wastage of resources.

However, student’s perception of the subject as being practically oriented need materials to be used in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, it is against this background that this study attempts to examine the extent to which the utilization of instructional materials could advance academic achievement of students in Biology within Abak Local Government Area.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, often times when the results of public examination are released, there seems to have been mass failure in Biology. Moreover, the reason for this could be attributed to the fact that, there are some topics in Biology that pose serious challenge to the comprehension of the students. This calls for the need on the use of instructional materials to teach the topics.

Thus, this is because some topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional materials to make the lesson practical. Balogun (2022) stated that, using the few available instructional materials, a student is expected to get the greatest satisfaction in the classroom during teaching.

 

Unfortunately, it has been found that most Biology teachers have not been using the few available instructional materials and as such, students are the worse heat in both internal and external examinations. Therefore, it was based on these problems that the researcher’s interest is to find out the extent to which the utilization of instructional materials could influence student’s academic achievement in Biology in Abak Local Government Area.

 

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the use of instructional materials and academic achievement in biology. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to:

  1. Find out the academic achievement of students taught Biology with the use of instructional materials and those taught without the use of instructional materials.
  2. Find out the academic achievement of male and female students taught Biology with the use of instructional materials.

 

1.4    Significance of the Study

The use of instructional materials gives the learners opportunity to touch, see and where possible smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process.

Therefore, the study of this nature is significant to:

Teachers: The study would help enhance teachers teaching effectiveness and productivity. This is because a teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance student’s innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.

 

Educational System and Society at Large: This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the students will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government economic policies and activities and perform economically better in the choice of life and work.

Finally, the teacher training colleges, college of education and other institutions directly or indirectly concerned with training of teachers will derive benefits from this study.

 

1.5    Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference between academic achievement of students taught Biology with the use of instructional materials and those taught without the use of instructional materials.
  2. There is no significant difference between academic achievement of male and female students taught Biology with the use of instructional materials.

 

Definition of Terms

Instructional Materials: This refers to all the resources in the learning environment which makes learning experiences concrete with the view to stimulate student’s creativity and interest in the learning situation such as chart and re-alia.

Utilization: In brief, the act of using instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Biology to achieve the stated objectives.

Academic Achievement: This is the level of knowledge or skill attained by a student in a given subject usually designated by a test score or grade.

 

Conclusion

The place of instructional materials in the effective implementation of any educational programme cannot be undermined especially in the study of Biology. This is because instructional materials perform such functions as the extension of the range of experience available to learners, supplement and complement the teachers’ verbal explanations thereby making learning experience richer and providing the teacher with interest into a wide variety of learning activities.

However, the use of instructional materials supplement, clarify, visualize, emphasize instruction and enhance learning in the process of transmitting knowledge, ideas, skills and attitude. This calls for teacher to make use of the “Local materials” in place of “standard ready-made materials” which makes lesson in Biology more effective and improved students’ achievement.

Based on the findings and specific objectives of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. There is a significant difference between academic achievement of students taught Biology with the use of instructional materials and those taught without the use of instructional materials.
  2. There is a significant difference between academic achievement of male and female students taught Biology with the use of instructional materials.

 

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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

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