Research Proposals



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1.1   Background to the Study

There is no gainsaying that, science has been accorded a prime position worldwide within the context of science education. Chemistry has been identified as a very important science subject and its importance in scientific and technological development of any nation has been widely reported (Avaa, 2002). It was as a result of the recognition given to Chemistry in the development of individual and the nation that has made it a core-subject among the natural sciences and other science-related courses in the Nigerian educational system (Adesoji, & Olatunbosun, (2008). It has been a pre-requisite subject for offering most science oriented courses in the tertiary institution.

Teaching methods are the means for helping students to study effectively. Teaching methods concern the tactics teachers use to meet teaching objectives, including instructional organization and techniques, subject matter, and the use of teaching tools and materials.

Ameh & Dantani, (2012) observed that methodology is very vital in any teaching-learning situation and the method adopted by the teacher may promote or hinder learning. It may sharpen mental activities which are the bases of social power or may discourage initiatives and curiosity thus making self-reliance and survival difficult.

Teachings should be involved in “formulating the goals and objectives for teaching procedures that will best achieve those objectives, carrying out procedures, evaluating the successes and failures”( Clark, and Starr, 2001). Teaching method is a product of the combination of strategies, tactics and techniques (Clark, and Starr, 2001).


Shymansky and Kyle (Shymansky and Kyle (2008) were of the view that instructional strategy includes the materials, media, setting and behaviour the teacher uses to create an environment to produce an effect. As a result, the achievement of the instructional goals and the choice of suitable teaching strategies are not separate.

Erdem (Nbina, and Obomamu, 2011) emphasizes four features of teaching strategies. First, teaching strategies should improve a student’s predisposition to learning by increasing the desire for studying and understanding new situation. Second teaching tactics ought to be designed to promote quick assimilation of the knowledge imparted during instruction as well as the development of the learner’s skills in doing so. Third, teaching techniques should be put in the best order possible. So that students can apply their past knowledge to understand new material. Finally, instructional tactics should be developed to encourage true student participation in the learning process.



Different teaching strategies will lead to varied instructional outcomes and an instructor can choose for himself or herself strategies which are appropriate to his or her intention in teaching. A particular strategy may be better than another one for a given purpose. Yet a single strategy may not be applicable for all students and all types of subject matter. Consequently, the selection of strategies should be in accord with an individual population of students and the particular subject matter (Erdem, 2012).

The choice of strategies and tactics relies upon the selected learning activities. Thus “the key to (teaching) method is to bring about the desired learning in students. By selecting the proper strategies and tactics and consequently the proper content and techniques” (Clark, and Starr, 2001).


According to Nbina and Obamamu (Agboola, O. S. and Oloyede, E. O. (2007) teachers should match how to teach with what and to whom to teach. In developing a variety of methods for facilitating student achievement of determined outcomes. (Agboola and Oloyede Berry (2008) also emphasizes that for effective instruction, a science teacher. Must able to use several science teaching methods and to implement them. Where they are applicable and most effective.

The traditional lecture approach often consists of a teacher centered methodology in a face to face capacity. Given the prevalence of this prescribed mode of instruction. There has been a shift in students attending classes with the intention of gaining new and meaningful knowledge. However, the incentive in attending lectures now is to get the current information needed to pass the assessment (Berry, 2008). In these types of lecture environments, the formal style of lecturing alone has not proven to be effective.

However, researchers have instead found that combining traditional methods of lecturing with learner centered methodologies can be a more productive approach. When instructors allow for a brief traditional lecture followed by discussions, group work. Also, application, students demonstrate a better understanding of the material (Dolnicar, 2005).


Knight and Wood (2005) additionally sought to replace some lecture time with “interactive engagement and cooperative work”. Indeed, as instructors have labored to accommodate learners, the structure of lectures has taken on more innovative techniques.


Chemistry as a science subject is bulky in nature. The subject teachers usually adopt lecture method in teaching in order to cover the syllabus within the stipulated time and this do not give room for proper understanding of the subject.

According to Achounye (2013) demonstration approach is a practical method of teaching. It involves showing, doing and telling something. The onus is therefore on the teacher to display the steps in the process and explain them accurately and clearly. While students are expected to practice by repeating the things the teacher has done. This method have been noted for bridging the gap between theory and practice (Daluba, 2013).  It controls the rate of breakages and accidents as students watch the teacher do it before attempting to do the same. And enable the teacher to teach manipulative and operational skills.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Students’ persistent poor performance has been partly ascribed to inadequate teaching and instructional methods adopted by science teachers (Ameh & Dantani, (2012).

Ifemuyinwa, [2008] reported the deplorable performance of secondary school students in science subjects and identified persistent use of the traditional mode of instruction as one of the major short-coming affecting the learning and higher achievement in science subjects.

The situation is further exacerbated by the abysmal performance recorded in NECO/WAEC Annual report for 2010-2014. (WAEC Report, (2014),  (NECO (2014) for chemistry and other allied sciences. This therefore calls for the adoption of activity-based strategy. That will not only be stimulating and motivating to the learners. But should also have the potential of improving learning outcomes significantly.

It is in view of the foregoing, that this study was initiated to examine the acquisition of chemistry knowledge in the classroom using two instructional strategies. Lecture and demonstration methods with the aim of determining the effect of each method on the learning outcomes of students in Senior Secondary Schools.


1.3  Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of two teaching method on chemistry students in secondary schools. Specifically the study set to investigate:


the difference in the academic achievement of students exposed to lecture method and those exposed to demonstration.

the difference in the academic achievement between male students taught demonstration method and exposed to lecture method .

difference in the academic achievement between female students taught demonstration method.

difference in the academic achievement of male and female students taught using lecture method and those taught by demonstration method.


Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study

  1. What is the difference in the learning outcome of students exposed to lecture method and those exposed to demonstration?
  2. What is the difference in the learning outcome of male students taught using lecture method and those taught using demonstration method?
  3. What is the difference in the learning outcome of female students taught using lecture method and  those taught using demonstration method?
  4. What is  the  difference  in  the learning outcome between male and female students taught using demonstration method?


Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated at 5% level of significance

There is no significant difference in learning outcome of Chemistry students exposed to lecture and demonstration methods.

There is no significant difference in achievement of male Chemistry students exposed to lecture method and those taught using demonstration method.

No significant difference in achievement of female Chemistry students exposed to lecture method and those taught using demonstration method.

No significant difference in learning outcome between male and female Chemistry students taught using demonstration method.



This study reaffirms the previous studies which suggest that, the demonstration instructional method of teaching enhances the learning outcomes of senior secondary school students towards chemical bonding. Therefore the demonstration instructional method is viable and has potential to enhance senior secondary school students’ academic achievement in chemistry.

The teaching of chemical bonding, using the demonstration instructional method was found to be independent of gender. This means that, both boys and girls showed enhanced learning outcome in the use of demonstration instructional strategy.

In summarizing our findings, we conclude that these results apply to public secondary schools. We cannot say whether these relationships apply to other institutions of secondary education. No doubt our results remains open and certainly suggest avenues  for further research and it would be desirable to examine these relationships using data from more than one institution. Nonetheless, we have found demonstration instructional strategy a significant predictor of learning outcome in chemistry.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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