THE EFFECT OF MODELS UTILIZATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BASIC SCIENCE

THE EFFECT OF MODELS UTILIZATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BASIC SCIENCE
THE EFFECT OF MODELS UTILIZATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BASIC SCIENCE

THE EFFECT OF MODELS UTILIZATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BASIC SCIENCE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       i

Certification        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       ii

Dedication         –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iii

Acknowledgement      –       –       –       –       –       –       iv

Abstract     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       v

Table of contents        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       vi

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study     –       –       –       –       1

1.2    Statement of the Problem    –       –       –       –       3

1.3    Purpose of the Study  –       –       –       –       –       5

1.4    Significance of the Study     –       –       –       –       5

1.6    Research Questions    –       –       –       –       –       6

1.7    Research Hypothesis   –       –       –       –       –       7

1.7    Limitation of the Study –       –       –       –       –       7

1.8    Delimitation of the Study             –       –       –       8

1.9    Operational Definition of Terms    –       –       –       8

 

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Theoretical Framework   –       –       –       –       –       9

2.2    The concept of Model  Resources- –       –       –       13

2.3    Models Utilization and Academic

Performance of Student       –       –       –       –       20

2.4    Gender and Academic Performance of Students when models are used in Teaching   –       –       –       –       –       24

2.5    Summary of Literature Review      –       –      –       29

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Research Area    –       –       –       –       –       –       32

3.2    Research Design        –       –       –       –       –       33

3.3    Population of the Study       –       –       –       –       33

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique          –       –       –       33

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection      –       –       –       33

3.6    Validity of the Instrument    –       –       –       –       34

3.7    Administration of the Instrument  –       –       –       34

3.8    Method of Data Analysis      –       –       –       –       34

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Data Presentation/Analysis   –       –       –       –       35

4.2    Discussion of Finding –       –       –       –       –       40

 

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       50

5.2    Recommendations      –       –       –       –       –       52

5.3    Conclusion –       –       –       –       –       –       –       53

5.4    Suggestions for Further Studies   –       –       –       54

References

Appendix

 

CERTIFICATION

The undersigned certify that the project entitled “the effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in basic science” was carried out by Brown, Imeobong Bernard with the Registration No. 2022/SSC/BIO/ISC/29236 in Akwa Ibom State College of Education Afaha Nsit (Affiliated to University of Uyo, Uyo).

Dr. Sylvester D. Udo

(Supervisor)

Dr.  S. R. Osu
Dean, school of science

Dr. Theresa F. Ekanem

Internal Examiner    

 

ABSTRACT

 The study was designed to investigate the effect of Model Utilization on Students Academic Performance in Basic Science in Secondary Schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. Two hundred (200) JSS1-JSS2 students were randomly selected from five secondary schools in the study Area.

Thereafter, a Survey research design was adopted for the study. Basic science Achievement test (BSAT) was the instrument for data collection; data collected were analyzed using Independent t-test. Finding showed that students taught using models performed significantly better than those taught without model utilization and that there was no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught using models.

Based on the findings, certain recommendations were made toward improving students’ academic performance. Prominent among these recommendations include: adequate provision of models and other instructional materials for effective teaching of Biology, and finally Educational administrators, should organize seminars, conferences and workshops to improve the teachers, as well as, students’ knowledge on the use of models and other instructional materials in the classroom.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study                 

Without a doubt, education is a primary tool for promoting economic development and aids people to use and cultivate their abilities (Adeyemi, & Adu, 2010). Certainly, Outlook, expertise and knowledge that are important for effective living are acquired through education (Okeke, 2007). In fact, Secondary Education is a linkage between elementary education and the employment market and it is important in the training of human resource for advancement and provision of life opportunities (Onsomu, Muitaka, Ngwane & Kosimbei, 2006). Indeed, science is the foundation on which present day technological breakthrough is hinged (Igwe, 2013).

 

Without a doubt, to cultivate scientifically knowledgeable students that are concerned with high competence for rational thoughts and actions is a key goal of science education. Certainly, the goals of science education (Maduekwe, 2006) “consist of preparing learners to perceive and investigate their environment. Without reservation, elucidate natural-phenomena, cultivate scientific attitudes like curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity; apply the skills and knowledge gained. Undeniably, through science to solve everyday problems in the environment, develop self-confidence and self-reliance through problem solving activities in science”. The effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in basic science.

Emphatically, effective instructions in a classroom require careful planning geared towards individualize learning. Therefore, resource-based learning is the response to the need to individualize instruction. In addition, Orlich (2011), states that students learn better where instructional activities are sequenced, that is knowledge presented in a carefully interrelated steps generally starting with a simple step, followed by complex and abstract concepts.

 

Moreover, the Use of teaching and learning resources like models help achieve this objective as learning proceeds from the known to the unknown. Thus, this inductive method of learning where reasoning progresses from specific to general constitutes effective learning.

 

Deductive reasoning on the other hand involves mostly lecture methods where learning proceeds from general to specific with little or no resources required for effective learning. Indeed, a rich Basic Science lesson requires integration of resources for proper understanding of concepts.

Beswick (2015), says that when sufficient range in suitably graded aid becomes available, it makes lockstep advance unnecessary as it discourages uniformity of opinion by learners enabling teachers to have a real opportunity to individualize learning. When this happens he adds, increasing number of students will reach more and more objectives. Model is also seen as a smaller or larger physical copy of an object. The object being modeled may be small (for example the eye) or large (For example, the human skeleton).

 

THE EFFECT OF MODELS UTILIZATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BASIC SCIENCE

Models should incorporate all teaching resource which provides direct and concrete experience thereby reducing abstraction during instructional pro ess (Nicholas, 2010).

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Undeniably, the menace of failure among the young school students has stared the parent’s, government and stakeholders in the face. There is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education as a big problem that is hindering the posterity of the Nigerian nation in terms of quality man-power resources. Most students in secondary schools experience academic problem that manifest itself in the form of poor academic performance mostly in Basic science subject.

However, many researchers have sought to find out the reasons for the downward trend in the academic performance of secondary school students. Specifically, Ogbemudia and Aiasa (2013) reported lack of good home foundation for students as cause of poor performance by students.

 

Achieng (2014) found home factors, student’s factors and institutional capacity as the causes while, Adesehimwa and Aremu (2010) posited that factors resident in child, family, society, government and the school may be composite causative effects for these downward trend. Hence, this study seeks to examine the influence of model resources on the academic achievement of students in Basic science in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. The effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in basic science.

Therefore, this motivated the researcher to investigate on the effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in Basic science in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The study sought to investigate the effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in Basic Science in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. To achieve the above general purpose, the study specifically:

(i)       Examined the effect of the use of models on the academic performance of students in Basic Science.

(ii)      Assessed whether there could be any significant difference in performance between male and female students when taught Basic Science using models.

 

1.4   Significance of the Study

(i)       This study significantly will help government, educational planners as well as other philanthropic organizations to know the need for the provision of quality and quantity facilities adequate for Basic Science as it will help students to be self-reliant.

(ii)      It will enhance innovative thinking, creativity and resourcefulness among Basic Science teachers as they will have to think of and select relevant materials for utilization during the teaching learning process.

(iii)     Lastly, the study will be of great significance to future researchers who may wish to carry out more studies on topics related to models utilization.

 

1.5 Research Questions

  1. To what extent does the mean performance of students differ between those taught skeletal system with models and those taught the same concept without the utilization of models.
  2. To what extent does the mean performance of male students differ between that of females when taught skeletal system with the utilization of models

 

1.6   Research Hypotheses

(i)       There is no significant difference in the mean performance of students taught Basic Science using models and those taught Basic Science without models

(ii)      There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female Basic Science Students taught using models.

 

1.7   Limitation of the Study    

The researcher had difficulty in administering the research instrument on the selected schools due to the location of the schools. Also lack of time due to researcher workload and financial constraints were the major factors that affect this study.

 

1.8   Operational Definition of Terms

(i)     Model: A model is a visual aid or picture which highlights the main ideas and variables in a process or a system. Models include words or diagrams intended to give an understanding of the variables associated with school learning. Model is also a recognizable 3-dimensional likeness of representation of the real thing.

(ii)    Academic Performance: In brief, this refers to the Child’s examination scores or result in school.

(iii)   Basic Science: In brief, this is the study of life (plant and animals).

 

Conclusion

On the basis of the research findings, it was necessary to draw the following conclusions;    

(i)       There is a significant difference in the academic performance of students taught Basic science using models and those taught without using models.

(ii)      There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught Basic science taught using models.

 

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