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1.1 Background to the Study

With postcolonial experience as an embodiment of socio-political turmoil, corruption, and political disillusionment. This study attempt to exposed  how Armah and Adichie uses their literary drama to portray the causes and it consequences of leadership failure and corruption. That had  hindered the effective nation-building in Ghana and Nigeria society today.


In the same vein, the ideals of nationalism and independence progressively degenerate as a result of bad leadership, endemic corruption, moral decadence, political instability and social insecurity. For instance, the eminent African novelist and critic Chinua Achebe in his famous book entitled The Trouble with Nigeria posts that the leaders are the causes of the Nigeria’s problems. And it their habits that inhibit Nigeria from becoming a modern and attractive country. He went further to states that:

The only trouble with Nigeria is the failure of leadership. Because, with help of good leaders Nigeria could resolve its inherent problems. Such as tribalism; lack of patriotism; social injustices, the cult of mediocrity; indiscipline and corruption. The trouble with Nigeria is simply a failure of leadership. The Nigerian problem is the unwillingness or inability of its leaders. To rise to the responsibility to the challenge of personal example which are the hallmarks of true leadership (1).

No doubt, Most of the issues Achebe discuss hold true to Nigeria, Ghana and other African countries as well- even in present day 2018. In addition, Corruption, indiscipline, tribalism, lack of patriotism, illiteracy and greed are killing administrations in several African nations today.


Based on the above assertion, it is true that the trouble with Nigeria even in other African countries is simply a failure of leadership…unwillingness and inability of the leaders to rise to the responsibility of solving the challenges of the masses.

Delap Mickalso opines that, in the face of appalling political mismanagement. Corruption becomes an endemic monster that impoverishes and devastates the nation. He further states that, Wole Soyinka, Chinua Achebe and other literary writers of the 1960s and 1970s were the first to switch the focus of their creative writings. Towards such pressing “public political issues ruthlessly articulating a public and published resistance to the steady, often savage erosion of freedom and justice taking place around them” (5).


The effect and consequences of leadership failure and corruption in Ayi’s the beautyful ones are not yet born and Adichie’s half of a yellow sun

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The statement of this study  on the notion that, Armah’s The Beautyful One Are Not Yet Born  and Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun are novels  that portrays a clear picture of leadership failure and corruption  are the major issues affecting our African societies  today. Today, corruption has remained a major challenge basseting the socio-economic and political development of most countries.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research project is to examine the effect and consequences of leadership failure and corruption in Ayi’s The Beautyful Once Are Not Yet Born and Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun


1.4   Significance of the study  

The study is significant for the following reasons:

  • it will help the government to ensure accountability, probity and transparency in the conduct of public office holders.
  • it will help to stimulate the interest of students, teachers and the general public in literary discourse.
  • it will serves as a reference materials to  researchers. Who might  want to investigate on  the issue of leadership failure and corruption in African literature


1.5 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are:

1 to portray the elements of leadership failure and corruption in the two selected novels under investigation

2 to investigate the causes and effect of leadership failure and corruption in our contemporary African societies with reference to Armah’s and Adichie’s play under study

3 to proffer solution to the consequences of corruption in Armah’s The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born and Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun


1.6 Research Methodology

The primary method of this study will focus on Armah’s The Beautyful Once Are Not Yet Born and Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun. Internet sources, academic journals, novels from other literary writers and library method will be used as it secondary sources of the study for more information.


1.7 Bio-Data of Ayi Armah

Armah was born on October 28, 1939 in Takoradi, Ghana. His heritage was Fante, one of the major ethnic groups in the country and he came from an elite family. At the time of his birth, the West African nation was a colony of Britain. On March 6, 1957, Armah’s land became the first colonial African country to win the sovereignty struggle. Around this time, Armah was a student at the Achimota College. A secondary school in Accra, Ghana’s capital and in 1959 he won a scholarship to the Groton School in Massachusetts, a prestigious boarding school for boys whose alumni include President Franklin Roosevelt as well as numerous Wall Street titans.

From there, Armah went on to Harvard University, where he earned a degree in sociology. His first published short story appeared in 1964 Harvard Advocate issue.


Armah also  lived in Algeria and worked as a translator for Revolution Africaine magazine in 1963 before coming back to take a job as a scriptwriter for Ghana Television. He also taught English at the Navrongo School in Ghana’s city of the same name in 1966 before leaving for Paris to edit Jeune Afrique (“Young Africa”). A French-language weekly news magazine, for the year.

He also taught at the University of Massachusetts and then settled in Tanzania in 1970. After 1976 he taught at the National University of Lesotho, a country located within South Africa. He continued to produce essays for various journals, including Black World and West Africa, on literary and political topics. While working on his third novel, Why Are We So Blest.

As one of the renowned Ghanaian novelist, Armah attained international renown for his fiction in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Despite his fame Armah maintained an intensely private life. And rarely gave interviews and distanced himself from discussions of his craft.


His Selected writings include:

The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born, Houghton 1968.

Fragments, 1970.Why Are We So Blest1972.

Two Thousand Seasons, 1973.

The Healers, 1978.


1.9   Bio-Data of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie was born 15 of September, 1977 in Enugu State, Nigeria. She is the fifth of six children born to Igbo parent while the family’s ancestral hometown is Abba in Anambra State, Nigeria. She grew up in Nsukka in a house formerly occupied by a Nigerian writer Late Chinua Achebe. Her father was the first professor of statistics and later became Deputy Vice Chancellor of the University Nsukka. Her mother was also the registrar at the same institution.

Chimamanda completed her secondary education at the University school, Nsukka receiving several academic prizes. She went for medicine and pharmacy at the University of Nigeria but dropped out after only one half year.


During this period, she edited the compass, a magazine run by the University’s catholic Medical; Students.

At the age of nineteen, Chimamanda left for United State of America. She gained a scholarship to study communication at Drexel University in Philadelphia for two years. Thereafter, went on to pursue a degree in communication and political science at Eastern Connecticut State University.


She graduated from Eastern Connecticut State University in 2001 and completed her master’s degree in Creative writing at John Hopkins University, Baltimore. It is during her senior year at Earthen Connecticut State University that she started working on her first novel, Purple Hibiscus. Which was released in October, 2005. The book has received wide critical Acadian it. It was short listed for the orange fiction prize 2004 and has awarded the Common Wealth Writers Prize for best first book 2005.

Her second novel, Half of a Yellow Sun, also the title of one of her short stories is set before and during the Biafra War. It was published in August, 2006 in the United States.

Chimamanda was a holder follow at Princeton University during the 2005-2006 academic years. She earned an M.A. in African studies from Yale University in 2008. Her plays has been selected by the Common Wealth Broadcasting Association and BBC short story Awards.





While Armah is considered one of Africa’s leading prose stylists writing in English. His works have met with a somewhat mixed critical reaction, though many reviewers have praised his stylistic innovations. The author is usually appreciated for the strength of his convictions. Thus, desire to promote the improvement of the African continent and those who live there as well.


Early Works Lauded by Critics Critics generally praised Armah’s first three works. Especially, The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born. Many compared Armah’s writing ability with that of such celebrated Western writers as James Joyce and Joseph Conrad. Charles R. Larson, in The Emergence of African Fiction, describes the book as “a novel which burns with passion and tension. With a fire so strongly kindled that in every word and every sentence one can almost hear and smell the sizzling of the author’s own branded flesh.”

In the Journal of Commonwealth Literature, James Booth describes it as “the most powerful work of a novelist of genius.” But other critics—notably Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe—accused Armah of portraying Africa in a European manner.


Early critical allegations that there are few “Africanisms” in Armah’s first two novels and that the books do not draw upon Ghanaian settings. Speech, or history, have not held up under close investigation, however. These books are so imbued with surviving ritual forms. Ceremonial motifs, local mythologies, and residual ancestral beliefs that traditional West African culture is always powerfully. If remotely, present, both in its superior ethical imperatives and its inherent deficiencies.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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