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THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF E-LEARNING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC

THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF E-LEARNING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Declaration

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

Abstract

 

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background to the Study

1.2          Statement of the Problem

1.3          Purpose of the Study

 

1.4          Research Questions

1.5          Hypotheses

1.6          Significance of the Study

1.7          Scope/Delimitation of the Study

1.8          Definition of Operational Terms

 

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.1          Design of the Study

3.2          Population of the Study

3.3          Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.4          Research Instrument

3.5          Validity of the Instrument

 

3.6          Reliability of the Instrument

3.7          Administration of the Instrument

3.8          Data Analysis Technique

 

CHAPTER 4: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1          Analyses of Data Results

4.2          Summary of Major Findings

4.3          Discussion of the Findings

 

CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1          Summary

5.2          Conclusion

5.3          Recommendations

5.4          Suggestions for Further Studies

References

Appendixes

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the Study

The emergence and global spread of corona virus disease has undoubtedly left the world helpless and overwhelmed. According to WHO, the virus remains a public health emergency of international concern. Unbelievably, this pandemic has tremendously overwhelmed countries with the state-of the-art health infrastructural facilities, leaving developing and underdeveloped countries with weak health infrastructures needing help from international bodies and few wealthy citizens.

Globally, corona virus has claimed thousands of lives, with the Asia and European countries recording larger number of deaths. The first case of Covid 19 was recorded in the United States in January, 2020. As at April 11, 2022, United States had recorded confirmed positive cases of 81.8 million and over 1012.57 deaths as a result of complications arising from COVID-19 (Elflein, 2022).

 

In Nigeria, there has been unprecedented increase in the number of cases between May and August 2020 as well as between December 2020 and December 2021. Overall cases in Nigeria reached 187.023 with death toll 2187 (Simona, 2021).

The cumulative number of confirmed corona virus cases (Covid-19) in Nigeria from February 28, 2020 to April 12, 2022 is 255, 648 in total and 314.3 casualties and 249, 847 recoveries (Sasu, 2022) (Worldometer, 2022).  The global health guidelines to restrain the spread of this pandemic include physical and social distancing, compulsory wearing of face mask, personal hygiene as well as lockdown order.

The implementation of strict quarantine measures and “stay at home” orders in Nigeria has kept a large number of people in isolation and affected many aspects of people’s lives. The effects could range from financial distress, social difficulties, emotional and psychological disorder such as anxiety to loneliness and depression.

 

THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF E-LEARNING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Nigeria is a developing country which operates an economy where a good number of its citizens depend on daily income through petty economic activities. The government’s “lockdown order” met a lot of Nigerians unawares despites several warnings by the Nigerian government of the likelihood of lockdown as many were yet to come in terms and understand the nature and consequences of the spread of Corona virus disease.

One of the challenges that came with curtailing the Corona virus disease was that an infected person might not show symptoms until up to 14 days thereby fueling disbeliefs among some individuals and communities about the existence and spread of this deadly disease.

 

Opalowo (2016) in an earlier study has documented that the Nigerian health beliefs to be traditional, with most people looking to spirituality and help from God (Supreme being) to keep healthy and guard them from diseases. This repeatedly leads to abandonment of preventive measures and safety measures, even in the case of corona virus (Covid-19) pandemic.

Furthermore, factors that placed people at risk of social isolation and loneliness have been studied extensively in the literature, with numerous studies showing that both have negative consequences on health mentally and physically (Pinquart & Sorensen, 2001; Holt Lunstad, Smith, Baker, Harris and Stephenson, 2015). This may explain why Nigeria, the Federal and State governments allocated funding for social welfare and palliatives to alleviate citizen’s sufferings as a result of the lockdown order.

As part of this scheme, impecunious citizens were paid some amount of money to cater for the needs of their family during the period (Samuel, 2020).

Burgess and Sievertson (2020) pointed out that most African countries have identified cases and deaths from COVID 19, and some have closed their borders and banned international flights, resulting in a significant reduction in domestic and international trade.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, South Africa, Tunisia and Nigeria are some of those countries that declared a complete blockade at a time. In South Africa, the impact on key sectors of the economy is expected to reduce growth by 1.5% in the first two months of the outbreak (Burgess and Sievertson (2020).

 

Ethiopia on behalf of African countries recently called on the G20 Forum for urgent lending of $150 billion to African countries and freezing lending rates and debt cancellation, was the concern of most countries. This was as that impact of the virus a threat to the continent’s economic development.

According to Baker (2020) as of April 21, 2020, the spread of the virus impacted all aspects of the world economy. The educational sector was not left out. For example, approximately 1,723 million learners were affected by sudden school closures around the world.

Similarly, UNESCO surveillance (2020), noted that by April 2020, 191 countries have implemented national closures and five regional closures, affecting approximately 98.4 percent of the world’s student population.

 

The impact varies from place to place and from persons to persons depending on technological and Information and Communication Technology development applied to education and their readiness. In some countries, in class face-to-face learning switched over to online fairly seamlessly. However, this study will examine the significant impact of Covid-19 on the education system of Nigeria.

Going to school is the best public policy tool available to develop skills and potentials. School time can be fun, and from an economic point of view being in school is that it increased a child’s ability to become a useful and acceptable member of the society.

Even a relatively short time in school has a longer impact in the life of a child; a short period of missed school may have consequences for skill growth in future (Samuel, 2020). This is why estimation of how much the COVID-19 interruption will affect the educational process would be difficult to determine exactly. Now we are in a different world far from what we knew.

The corona virus pandemic has exposed the socio-economic inequalities of the Nigeria education system; many wealthy families in Nigeria sent their children to private schools leaving the poor resources and facilities in public schools.

 

In many cases, these children live in communities with poor or non-existent internet connectivity and no power supply. Inevitably, if this digital innovation is the only alternative to switch to during the lockdown it could make worse learning disparities among children because not many parents can afford an android phone talk less of other sophisticated ICT tools used to support learning.

To contain further damage from the corona virus pandemic in the education sector, on June 15, 2020, the Oyo State Government announced that pupils/students of Elementary School 6, JSS 3, and SSS 3 should begin preparation for their respective external tests. This was done despite an automatic transfer order from the Federal Government of Nigeria to keep all schools closed until further notice.

 

In doing so, the Oyo State Government has promised to ensure that all health precautions were to be taken to prevent this category of staff and learners from becoming infected with the virus. Another control measure taken by the Federal Government of Nigeria regarding the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the education sector was a move to reopen schools for end-of-life students. The order was issued by the President on June 29, 2020, with the advice of the Nigerian Disease Control Center and the Presidential Task Force of Covid19, following the continued school closures since March 19, 2020. This then formed the background to the study.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Web-based class meetings and messaging applications have become useful tools and new ways of communicating with their learners and the education community. Many primary and secondary school teachers have not received even minimum training, and the few did not include basic digital skills.

Even in contexts with infrastructure and connectivity, many educators lack the most basic Information and Communication Technology skills. This implied many would likely struggle with their own ongoing professional development rather than making effort to facilitate quality distance learning. The challenges and prospects of e-learning in primary schools during covid-19 pandemic.

Online learning offers a diverse information service that is of benefit to educational growth and development. It assists in preventing the transmission of Covid-19 through face-to-face learning and also makes the teaching process to be simple and easy for both teachers and learners where the facilities are available and both students and teachers have competence in their use.

 

Despite these benefits of the Online learning, it has been observed not every pupil/student in primary and secondary schools in Delta State knew how to access and use the Internet. It has also been observed that there were difficulties, in the use of ICT various applications and resources. The challenges and prospects of e-learning in primary schools during covid-19 pandemic.

The crisis has been a reminder of the essential role of teachers and that government and other key partners have an ongoing duty of care to education personnel. This study, therefore, will examine the impact of covid-19 and the challenges and prospects of online learning during and after covid 19 pandemic (2020-2022).

 

1.3       Research Questions

The following research questions will be generated and answered:

  • What were the perceptions of teachers and principals on the challenges facing teaching-learning process during covid-19 pandemic (2020-2021) in primary schools?
  • What were the challenges encountered in adopting e-learning during covid-19 pandemic (2020-2021) in primary schools?

 

  • What were the relevant factors influencing the acceptance and use of e-learning in primary schools?
  • What were the perceived effect of ICT readiness among teachers on e-learning in primary schoolse?
  • To what extent does computer literacy influenced e-learning utilization in primary schools among teachers by gender?
  • What were the prospects of e-learning utilization in primary schools post Covid-19 Epidemic?
  • What online methods and modes were utilized by teachers to engage and motivate learners during the Covid-19 pandemic period (2020-2021) in primary schools?
  • What efforts have government made to ensure seamless switch from in-class learning to online teaching and learning in future?

 

1.4       Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses will be formulated:

  • There is no significant influence of ICT competence among teachers by experience on e-learning in primary schools.
  • There is no significant influence of computer literacy on e-learning utilization in primary schools among teachers by gender. The challenges and prospects of e-learning in primary schools during covid-19 pandemic.
  • There is no significant influence of ICT competence among teachers by age on e-learning in primary schools.

 

  • There is no significant influence of ICT competence among teachers by gender on e-learning in primary schools in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State.
  • There is no significant influence of ICT competence among teachers by location of schools on e-learning in primary schools.
  • There is no significant difference on challenges between teachers and utilization of e-learning in primary schools.
  • There is no significant difference on perceived prospect of the adoption of e-learning between teachers and utilization of e-learning in primary schools.

 

1.5       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study will be to investigate the challenges and prospects of online learning during and after covid-19 pandemic (2020-2022) in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State. Specifically, the study will investigate:

  • the perceptions of teachers and principals on the challenges facing teaching-learning process during covid-19 pandemic (2020-2021) in primary schools;
  • the challenges encountered in adopting e-learning during covid-19 pandemic (2020-2021) in primary schoolse;
  • the factors influencing the acceptance and use of e-learning in primary schools;
  • the effect of ICT competence among teachers by experience on e-learning in primary schools ;
  • the effect of computer literacy on e-learning utilization in primary schools among teachers by gender;
  • the prospects of e-learning utilization in primary schools post Covid-19 Epidemic crisis; and
  • what online methods and modes were and utilized by teachers to engage and motivate learners during the Covid-19 pandemic period (2020-2021) in primary schools.

 

1.6       Significance of the Study.

The findings of this study will be of significance in the following ways.

1) It is an important contribution to the research of understanding how to use e-learning materials and the challenges associated with it in the Covid 19 era.

2) It will be of significance to students as it will enable them to adopt e-learning materials in their learning which will reduce abstraction and make lesson real for them.

3) It will help teachers to adopt e-learning in their teaching which will make their teaching effective. The challenges and prospects of e-learning in primary schools during covid-19 pandemic.

4) The findings of this study will help curriculum designers revamp teacher education curriculum for Nigerian teachers of tomorrow and post Covid-19.

5) It will enhance innovative thinking and creativity in teachers as they will have to think of and select relevant e-learning materials for utilization in their teaching.

6) It will serve as a source of data for future researchers on related topic and add to the literature the virus and pandemic and education.

 

 Definition of Terms

e-learning: e-learning is imparting and facilitating knowledge with the help of electronic resources with major components being computer and Internet, CD-ROMs, and DVDs, streaming media, etc.

Attitudes of teachers: The way teachers perceive and think that may lead to the action they will take related to their teaching practices in the class.

Challenges: something that needs a lot of skill, energy, and determination to deal with or achieve, especially something you have never done before and will enjoy doing a difficult task or problem.

 

Prospects: Prospect implies expectation of a particular event, condition, or development of definite interest or concern; an advance realization of something to come.

Teachers’ ICT competence: this is the teacher’s knowledge, skills and confidence in the critical application of ICT tools in designing and creating rich learning environment and developing and presenting information during the teaching and learning process in class or online.

 

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Ikemesit

Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with projectboss.com.ng. I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research. ikemesitetukapan20233@gmail.com

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