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Title Page     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Certification  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Dedication    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii


Acknowledgements  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Abstract       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Table of Contents    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi



1.1     Background to the Study   –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem  –        –        –        –        –        7

1.3     Purpose of the Study.        –        –        –        –        –        9


1.4     Significance of the Study   –        –        –        –        –        10

1.5     Research Questions –        –        –        –        –        –        11

1.6     Research Hypotheses        –        –        –        –        –        11


1.7    Limitation of the Study       –        –        –        –        –        12

1.8    Delimitation of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        12

1.9   Definition of Terms    –        –        –        –        –        –        13



2.1     Concept of Teaching techniques   –        –        –        –

2.2     Discussion Technique and Academic Performance  –

2.3     Demonstration Technique and Academic

Performance           –        –        –        –        –        –

2.4     Enquiry Technique and Academic Performance            –

2.5     Summary of Related Literature     –        –        –        –        34



3.1     Research Area         –        –        –        –        –        –        36

3.2     Research Design      –        –        –        –        –                  37

3.3     Population for the study    –        –        –        –                  38

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique  –        –        –        38


3.5     Instrumentation      –        –        –        –        –        –        39

3.6     Validation of Instrument    –        –        –        –                  39


3.7     Reliability of the Instrument        –        –        –                  40

3.8     Administration of the Instrument           –        –        –        –        41

3.9     Scoring off the Instrument          –        –        –        –        –        41

3.10   Technique of Data Analysis          –        –        –        –        41



4.1     Data Presentation                       –        –        –                  42

4.2     Discussion of Findings       –        –        –        –        –        45



5.1     Summary      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        48

5.2     Recommendations  –        –        –        –        –                  49

5.3     Conclusion    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        50

5.4     Suggestion for Further Studies     –        –        –                  51

References    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        52

Appendix      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57



 The study examined teaching techniques and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population for the study consisted of 2042 Senior Secondary two (SS2) students in 11 public secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area. Moreover, two hundred and ten Economics students were randomly selected from seven selected public secondary schools in the area.

In addition, Economics Performance Test (EAT) and Questionnaire on Teaching Techniques and Academic Performance of Students in Economics (QTTAPSE). Were used as the instruments for data collection and independent statistical technique was employed in analyzing the data collected.




1.1     Background to the Study

Without reservation, teaching is the act of educating or instructing the learners. It is the act of imparting knowledge or skills on learners. Teaching as a process involves several activities by the teacher and the students. Ekanem (2016), states that it is because of the teaching process involves the activities of the teacher and the students that the teaching activity of the teacher falls under the search light of the larger society.

Similarly, the National Policy on Education cited in Ekanem (2016) clearly recognized the role of the teacher. When it declared that teacher’s education shall continue to be given major emphasis in all educational planning and development. Therefore, their technique of teaching need to be suitable in teaching the concept they want to teach.



The strategies, techniques and materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject matter at the secondary school level of education is certainly a paramount or important issue in classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners.


Discussion technique of teaching on the other hand, entails the discussion of real life situation with the learners by the teacher. It is a natural technique of learning that can take different forms such as modeling, games, dramatization, drawing and painting. According to Uwameiye and Ojikutu (2018), teaching can be defined as the action of a person (teacher) and may also refer to instruction of education performed by teacher.

However, Okon, (2014) maintained that the teaching of Economics and other social science subjects is very difficult as the subject does not have concrete materials to be presented to the students during lesson presentation and therefore, the use of lecture technique of teaching becomes the order of the day for teachers.

This technique of teaching reduces the teaching of the subject to mere memorization of facts and encourage cramming leading to poor presentation when need arises. This technique may not be appropriate for secondary school students.


The impact of any teaching technique is not only limited to the conditions surrounding the teaching but also the advantages and the disadvantages of a particular technique in a particular situation should not be left out. According to Keene (2015), each student learns best using strategies and objectives that reflect his experiences, abilities, aptitudes and interest.


Similarly, as there is no standard teaching technique; the various teaching techniques overlap in definition and application; none being mutually exclusive although researchers often delineate several teaching strategies. There is a radical departure from the direct teaching model in which the teacher engages students to learn. The student is viewed as an inquirer, a seeker of information and a problem-solver. These attributes are crucial to problem-solving and are at the heart of effective of teaching.

Consequently, there is now a growing concern for the use of demonstration technique in the teaching of Economics in Nigerian secondary schools.

In recent times, much research attention has been focused on teaching of Economics in Nigerian Secondary Schools with a view to ascertaining the adequacy and appropriateness of the teachers’ technique of teaching and indeed the effectiveness of instruction.

Investigation into the use of demonstration instructional technique in the teaching of Economics in Nigerian Secondary Schools seem to have focused mainly on teachers’ frequency of the use of this technique and sparingly on the application of important variables influencing its effective use.


The present concern for Nigerian Economics teachers with regards to utilization of certain teaching is born out of the fear that since most of these teachers have been used to lecture teaching approach and considering the existing inadequacies in teacher education in Nigeria, their awareness, equipment, orientation and willingness to embrace and effectively use the  inquiry technique as a mode of teaching are bound to be questionable. This activity technique is at times misconstrued and hence wrongly applied in the teaching of Economics as there are no materials to use in teaching the subject.

Nowak, Watt and Walther (2014), articulated this position and present evidence that, demonstration technique is generally effective in teaching sciences, mathematics and mechanics as well as subject areas within vocational and technical education. While discussion is appropriate for the teaching of social science and art and other related subjects (Economics inclusive). The teaching techniques and academic performance of students in economics in secondary schools.

In addition, as stated by Gokhale (2016), the professional success of a technologist is directly related to his/her ability to transfer knowledge gained in the academic environment to real-world situations. Most students learning occurs through observing others. Thus, this study attempts to elucidate the concept of technique of teaching. However, empirically establish its effectiveness on students’ performance in Secondary School.


The discussion technique has been widely accepted. Also, recommended by some educators as the good technique of teaching in secondary schools (Phipps & Osborne, 2012).

Futhermore, the discussion technique is the technique of teaching where the central and essential characteristic is interaction (Binkley and Tulloch, 2011). During discussion session students participate in the learning process. By contributing problems, analyzing the factors associated with the problems, developing possible solutions to the problems, placing the solution(s) into action, and evaluating the results of the solution.


A discussion provides the link between “knowing about” and “being able to do.” Research reveals that discussions are most effective when they are accurate and learners. Thus, are able to contribute effectively and understand what is going on, and when brief explanations occur during the discussion (Saskatchewan, 2012).

Teachers therefore should be able to lay the foundation to students at this level to ensure better academic future of the learners. Therefore, it is against this background information that the researcher intends to examine the teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.


1.2     Statement of the Problem

In addition, the act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitudes from the teachers to the learners. Moreover, experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcome.

However, the mass failure recorded by students in certificate examinations in secondary schools. Which according to the chief examiners of West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) in 2016 report that out of 1,104,13 students who registered for the examination. Only 571,006 obtained  pass with five credits including Economics, Mathematics and English Language.


Therefore, from the foregoing, there is a strong indication that academic performances of Economics students are a correlates of teaching technique utilized by teachers in the process of instructions.


1.3     Purpose of the Study

The study sought to examine the influence of teaching technique on academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools in Onna Local government area. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. examine the academic performance of students taught with discussion, enquiry or demonstration method of teaching among others.


1.4         Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be significant in the following ways:

Firstly, curriculum designers in developing curricular for Nigerian teachers of tomorrow which will help equipped them with knowledge on what type of techniques to use for instruction.

Secondly, it will enhance innovative thinking, creativity and resourcefulness among teachers as they will have to think of selecting relevant instructional technique for their lessons. The teaching techniques and academic performance of students in economics in secondary schools.

Thirdly, findings may also provide the teachers with a feedback on the teaching competences in most commonly used teaching techniques as a basis for improvement in their instructional practice so that they can enhance performance.


Also, the findings of this study will assist the Ministry of Education in providing teaching aids to support techniques used by teachers in the teaching/learning process.

In addition, the findings will help students to know the level of their performance and therefore thereby becoming learning conscious towards various techniques.

Lastly, future researchers will use the outcome of the research as reference materials on related topic.


1.5       Research Questions

i.  How does discussion method of teaching influence the students’ academic performance in Economics?

ii        To what extent does enquiry method of teaching influence the students’ academic performance in Economics?

iii       In what way does demonstration method of teaching influence the students’ academic performance in Economics?


1.6       Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant relationship between discussion method of teaching and academic performance in Economics.

ii        There is no significant relationship between enquiry method of teaching and academic performance in Economics.

iii       There is no significant relationship between demonstration method of teaching and academic performance in Economics.


1.7     Limitation of the study

Prominent among the problems will include: insufficient time frame allocated for the completion and submission of the research report and insufficient finance to process and purchase necessary materials required by study.


Operational Definition of Terms

Discussion Technique of Teaching: This is a technique of teaching which implies the participation of students in the process of raising of issues of their own. Also, contributing ideas, asking questions and seeking solutions based on the study and drawing conclusion under the teachers’ guidance.

Enquiry Method: In brief, this the method of teaching which involves the probing of students by the teachers for the students to get information for themselves.


Demonstration Method: This is an act of displaying and showing how something works and parts thereof.  

Lecture Technique: In brief, this is a technique of teaching which involves exposition of ideas by the teacher on what he/she thinks they should know.

Teaching Technique: Is a set of teaching procedures to follow in delivering our lessons.



The study was carried out to determine the effect of teaching technique on academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools. The study revealed that discussion, enquiry and demonstration technique of teaching significantly enhanced the academic performance of students in Economics than the traditional techniques (lecture).

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