Research Proposals



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Title Page


Approval Page




Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices



1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions


1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms



2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review


CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique


3.5       Instrumentation

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2    Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis



4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings



5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study






1.1   Background to the Study

Without reservation, teaching in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled. Moreover, the method, strategies and materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject matter at the secondary school level of our educational system is incontrovertibly of paramount importance in a practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners.

However, according to Eyibio, (2016) a method is a way of doing something, it is an approach or a stand which a teacher adopts in teaching his/her learners. In addition, The Nigeria Certificate in Education distance learning system defines teaching method as a process of selecting, directing, controlling and evaluating the experience of the child to achieve desirable outcome.

Indeed, English Language is one of the core subject offered by all students up to tertiary level of education. Moreover, considering its fundamental characteristics and importance, English Language is today a standard subject of instruction at all levels of educational systems. In fact, it is the only subject at secondary school level whose study is very relevant to man’s successful interaction in the world, irrespective of the tribe and Language.



Consequently, debates about what type of teaching method are the preferred methods of teaching is a common feature in academic circles and are divided along disciplinary lines. Students in the Language class generally learn more on concept mapping, demonstration, project, role-playing and experimental methods, those in the language class learn through discussion method.

Lowman (2020) says certain method such as concept mapping and demonstration method is especially stimulating or increase attention and motivation that ultimately enhance high academic performance.


Moreso, Inyang (2014) asserted that a teacher should select a teaching method which will make the class to be interesting and stimulating. The author added that discovery method whether it is guided inquiry or unguided enquiry equip the students with means of gaining knowledge on his own through active participation and he develops his mind by using it to solve problems. He further posited that discovery method helps in realizing one of the fundamental objectives of teaching science which is to develop manipulative skill by personal contact with material and apparatus.

Furthermore, The National Policy on Education 2013 stresses for the paradigm shift from behaviourism to constructivism to enhance conceptual learning in science and development of attitude towards learning of science. Thus, this curriculum demands such teaching-learning strategies that may involve students in their own knowledge construction, placing them as centre of learning activity and teacher as a facilitator. Teaching methods and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools. 


Nevertheless, concept mapping is one of the teaching-learning strategies under constructivism having its orientation in David Ausubel’s Assimilation theory of 1968 of cognitive learning, which aimed at fostering meaningful learning by students. Specifically, concept mapping as a learning strategy uses a rich social environment, where learners work individually and in groups to scaffold and mediate learning of each other (Oakley, 2021).

Moreover, concept mapping is a technique of visually representing the structure of information, concepts, and their relationship Macaulay (2023).

It is therefore important to investigate didactic method validity in view of laying down guidelines to improve the practice of teaching Biology and promote critical thinking by students. Therefore, it was on this background that this study aimed to examine teaching methods and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools.


1.2   Statement of the Problem

Biology as a study of life is important to everyday life because it allows humans to better understand their bodies, their resources and potential threats in the environment. Moreover, it helps people to understand every organism alive, from the smallest bacteria to blue whales. In fact, biology is one of the core subject offered by all science students up to tertiary level of education.

Despite the high position offered to Biology in Nigerian education system, many students struggle to learn Biology and often do not achieve success through their learning. Thus, this may stem from the fact that, they do not construct appropriate understanding of fundamental Biology concepts through their learning strategies. This has left the students with poor performance in both public and internal examinations (Obodo, 2020).  Therefore, it is against this backdrop that this study was carried out to examine teaching methods and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools.


1.3   Purpose of the study

The main purpose of the study was to examine teaching methods and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. Investigate concept mapping and lecture methods of teaching and students’ academic performance in biology in secondary schools
  2. Investigate gender difference and students’ academic performance in Biology in secondary schools when taught using concept mapping method.


1.4   Significance of the study

The findings of this study may be of benefit to curriculum designers, students, teachers amongst others in the following ways:

  1. Firstly, to curriculum designers, the findings will help in developing curricular for Nigeria science teachers of tomorrow equipping them with knowledge on methods of teaching of teaching to improved/enhanced academic performance.
  2. Secondly, it will enhance innovative thinking, creativity and resourcefulness among Biology teachers as they will have to think of selecting relevant teaching methods and materials for effective lesson delivery. Teaching methods and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools. 
  3. To students, the selection of relevant teaching methods may improve their participation during teaching learning process which may help to promote their academic performance in Biology in both external and internal examinations.
  4. Lastly, future researchers may make use of the outcome of the research as reference material on related topics.


1.5   Research Questions

In line with the objectives of the study, the following research questions were stated to guide the study:

  1. To what extent does students’ academic performance in Biology taught using concept mapping method differ from those taught using lecture method of teaching?
  2. To what extent does academic performance in Biology among male students differ from female students taught using concept mapping method of teaching?


1.6   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated in line with the research questions to guide the study:

1.       There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught Biology using concept mapping and those taught using conventional method of teaching.

2.      There is no significant difference in the academic performance between male and female students when taught Biology using concept mapping.


Definition of Terms

The following key words were briefly defined as used in the study:

Teaching Method: This is a way or an approach which a teacher adopts in teaching physical and health education

Concept Mapping: This is the method of teaching use to represent the relationships among concepts. It is the representation of a set of concept meanings embedded in a framework of proposition.


Lecture Method: In brief, this is a traditional method of teaching where the lecturer tells the students what he thinks they should know.

Academic Performance: This is the score of students in an examination or test.

Biology: In brief, a natural science concerned with the study of plants and animals.



The study was carried out to determine the effect of concept mapping method on student’s academic performance in Biology. The study revealed that concept mapping method significantly enhanced the academic performance of students in Biology than the traditional methods, it had no gender effects, it encouraged students’ classroom participation and interest.


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Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research.

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