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TEACHING METHODS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BASIC SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

TEACHING METHODS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BASIC SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

1.1     Background to the study

1.2     Statement of the problem

1.3     Purpose of the study

1.4     Significance of the study

 

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Limitation of the study

1.7     Delimitation of the study

1.8     Definition of term

 

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature

3.1     Area of the study

3.2     Research design

3.3     Population of the study

3.4     Sample and sampling technique

 

3.5     Research instrument

3.6     Validation of the instrument

3.7     Methods of data collection

3.8.    Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis, Presentation and Discussion of Finding

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Discussion of the findings

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendation

5.3     Conclusion

Reference

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A recent trend in Nigeria is the issue of poor performance in external examination such as the National Examination council and the West African Examinations Council.  Major concern has centered on the quality of teachers and non-commitment of the students to their studies due to distractions that hamper learning.  Moreover, Basic science and technology is the basic training in scientific skills required for human survival, sustainable development and societal transformation.

However, Michael (2018) maintained that Basic science is designed to help learn (what science is and how the scientist work). It focuses attention on giving the child a freehand to explore and discover his environment through inquiry. Specifically, basic science and technology is offered in Junior Secondary school. It is also the foundation for Science teaching and learning in schools.

 

TEACHING METHODS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BASIC SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Specifically, teaching Method are different principles, techniques and or ways that are used to instruct students in the learning environment. In fact, the method adopted by a teacher will depend on the skills or information the teacher would like to convey to the students. Some of the most common methods used daily by teacher are role playing, case study method, problem solving and discussion Methods. Indeed, while these methods are used daily, it is necessary that a skillful teacher should be conversant with various teaching strategies which may be applied to subject at different classifications.

 

Adage (2018) affirms that many methods of teaching  exist in education and these methods are meant to make teacher succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. The teacher therefore has the freedom to choose which method he considers   appropriate in teaching a particular subject or lesson. Thus, the learners rely on the resourcefulness of the teacher to perform. Teaching methods and academic performance of students in basic science in secondary schools.

According to Ekah (2016), while a good method adopted by the teacher may end up changing a bad learner to a good learner, bad teaching methods can turn good learners to bad learner.

Undeniably, teaching is one of the most challenging and crucial profession in the world. Teachers are critical in facilitating learning and in making it more efficient and effective. Thus, they hold the key to the success of any educational system and they are accountable for successful human development.

 

Moreover, Afe in Okorie (2023) opined that even with the best educational policy, design and expenditure of colossal sum of money for education, ultimate realization of any set of arms for education depends on the teachers as he/she will ultimately be responsible for translating policy into action and principle into practice and in his interaction with the students.

The teachers’ role as an instructional agent is therefore a complex one as he/she must master various instructional strategies and their applicability as it affects his/her area of specialization. Furthermore, Odunola (2021) and Ubeda (2022) identified teaching methods that are commonly adopted by teachers in the lesson class.

These include; discussion, discovery and lecture methods: However, Eddie (2016) in an earlier study added that discovery method and field trip are crucial to the teaching process particularly in science and technology.

 

Olaniyi (2019) finds in his studies that male students perform significantly better female students in science subjects. In addition, findings of Bolorunduro (2015) reveal that there was significant difference between female and male students. Science the reports from various studies on gender are inconsistent, gender as a variable attracted further investigation in this study. Segfred (2020) also reported that about two third of the study relating to the level of academic achievement found that male students performed statistically better than their female counterparts.

 

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Basic science is one of the core subjects offered in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. However, it is required, not only for examination, but also forms the foundation on which future programmed of students in science are based in junior secondary school.

One major problem is the inappropriateness of teaching methods used especially in the teaching of Basic Science which result in poor performance in school examination both internal and external examinations and have become a concern not only to teachers but also to parents and the society at large.

Despite the recommendation for use of appropriate teaching methods for teaching and learning science including Basic science by the federal Ministry of educations 6-3-3-4 curriculum reform, research reports indicate that the students’ performance in Basic Science is still poor. Teaching methods and academic performance of students in basic science in secondary schools.

 

In view of these, researchers in science education have continually sought for better teaching methods that will enhance students’ performance and promote their interest in teaching of Basic Science. Opara (2021) noted that teaching method when fostered in different ways can ultimately and positively affect students understanding and performance in Basic Science.

Therefore, based on this report, the researcher intends to find out what extent do methods used by the teachers in teaching Basic Science in Junior Secondary schools influence the academic performance of students.

 

1.3    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of this study is to examine teaching methods and academic performance of students in basic science in secondary schools. Specifically, the study aimed to:

  1. Determine if any difference exists in the academic performance of students exposed to lecture method and those exposed to discovery methods.
  2. Determine if any difference exists in the academic performance of students exposed to lecture method and those exposed to discussion method.
  3. Examine if any difference exists in the performance of male and female students exposed to discovery method.
  4. Determine if any difference exists in the performance of students exposed to discussion method.

 

1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

For the purpose of this research, the following research questions have been formulated:

  1. What is the difference in the academic performance mean scores of students exposed to lecture method and those exposed to discovery method?
  2. Will there be any difference in the academic performance mean scores of students exposed to lecture method and those exposed to discussion method?
  3. What is the difference in academic performance mean scores of male and female students exposed to discovery method?
  4. What is the difference in academic performance mean scores of male and female students exposed to discussion method?

 

1.5    HYPOTHESES

  1. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students exposed to lecture method and those exposed to discovery method
  2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students exposed to lecture method and those exposed to discussion method
  3. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students exposed to discovery method.
  4. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students exposed to discussion method.

 

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

          Finding obtained on the research will:

  1. Firstly, will guide teachers on the choice of appropriate method for teaching.
  2. Secondly, will serve as a source of reference materials to those who will undertake the study of this nature in future. Teaching methods and academic performance of students in basic science in secondary schools.
  3. Help Government and educational administrators when making policy statement concerning teachers training and provision of facilities for secondary schools.

 

DEFINITION OF TERMS

 ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE:- This refers to formative evaluation of students ability in a particular subject or summative assessment of students activities in the entire school.

DISCUSSION METHOD:- In brief, this method involves participation of teachers and the learners in the process of teaching.

DISCOVERY METHOD:- This is one of the instructional strategies through scientific or laboratory experiments.

 

GENDER:- It is a state of being   male or female with reference to social or cultural differences rather than biological ones.

LECTURE METHOD:- This is a teaching method in which the teacher does most of the talking while students do most of the listening.

TEACHING METHOD:- This is the process of selecting, directing, controlling and conducting the experiences of the learners so that learning can take place.

 

Conclusion

It is evident form all that have been discussed in this study that teaching methods has great influence in the teaching and learning of Basic Science  as well as academic performance of students. It is also important to realize that the best planned lesson is worthless if interesting method of teaching along with good classroom management techniques, are not in evidence.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

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