TEACHING AIDS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY

TEACHING AIDS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY
TEACHING AIDS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY

 

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TEACHING AIDS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

This study investigates Teaching Aids and Academic Performance Students in Biology in Ukanafun Local Government Area. The quasi-experimental design was used in the study. The population of the study comprised of all SS2 students in all the public secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area who registered for Biology in 2015/2016 academic section.

The total number of one hundred (100) students was the sample size. The instrument used was Biology Performance Test (BPT) to obtain data for the study. Independent t-test was used to analyze the data. Based on the findings, it revealed that there is a significant difference in the performance of Biology students taught using Teaching Aids and those taught Biology without teaching aids . Also there is no significant difference in the area performance of male and female Biology students taught Biology with Teaching Aids in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Certification-          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Dedication   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Acknowledgements         –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Abstract       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

CHAPTER ONE     – INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem         –        –        –        –        5

1.3     Purpose of the study       –        –        –        –        –        7

1.4     Significance of the study –        –        –        –        –        7

1.5     Research Questions        –        –        –        –        –        9

1.6     Research Hypotheses      –        –        –        –        –        10

1.7     Delimitation of the study –        –        –        –        –        10

1.8     Operational Definition of Terms          –        –        –

 

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     Concept of Teaching aids          –        –        –        –        11

2.2     Effect of Teaching Aids on Academic Performance

of Students  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        14

2.3     Gender Differences and Academic Performances

of Student   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        18

2.4     Summary of Literature Review        –  –        –        –        21

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Area       –        –        –        –        –        –        23

3.2     Research Design   –        –        –        –        –        –        24

3.3     Population of the study   –        –        –        –        –        24

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique        –        –        —       24

3.5     Research Instrument –    –        –        –        –        –        25

3.6     Validation of the Instrument     –        –        –        –        25

3.7     Administration of the Instrument        –        –        –        25

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument        –        –        –        –        26

3.9     Method of Data Analysis- –        –        –        –        –        26

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1     Data Analysis/Presentation       –        –        –        –        27

4.2     Discussion of Findings     –        –        –        –        –        39

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1     Summary     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        42

5.2     Recommendations           –        –        –        –        –        47

5.3     Conclusion   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        49

5.4     Suggestion for further studies             –        –        –        50

References

Appendix

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

Learning and teaching is the concern of a trained teacher but learning is a complex process. It can however be defined as a change in disposition. A relatively change in behaviour over-time and this is brought about by experience. Learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skill. Knowledge, perception, facts, principles, new information at hand etc (Adeyanju, 2007).

According to Agun (2003), learning can be reinforced by the teacher with teaching resources improvisation of different variety because these learning aids stimulate, motivate as well as arrest learner’s attention during the instructional process. He further said teaching resources are instructional materials and devices through which teaching and learning are done as far as Biology as a subject is concern in schools.

 

Moreover, Okunronifa (2007) have examples of teaching resources to include visual aids, audio aids, audio-visual aids, real objects and many others. The visual aids are designed materials that may be locally made or commercially produced. They come in form of wall charts, illustrated pictures, pictorial materials, puppets and models. There are also audio-visual aids. Therefore, these are teaching machines like radio, television and all sorts of projectors with sound attributes.

Akanbi (2008) specifically notes that whenever teachers taught with some teaching resources, their students get more stimulated because the learning aids used make the learners (students) to become more attentive. In addition, students positive attitude generate more interest for the lesson they teach. As a result, students participate better in class activity. Thus, this in-turn enhanced academic achievement of students in Biology in secondary school.

 

However, in the opinion of Agun (2003), there is need for teachers to improvise teaching resources for effective delivery of lessons effectively in the classroom. Accordingly, the dwindling of economic fortune of the country makes it imperative. That Biology teachers should improvise teaching resources using resources available within the local environment.

 

Most educational institutions cannot afford to depend on imported materials; hence, there is need for teachers and their students to improvise teaching and learning materials. For example, scale models of human anatomy, such as the human skeleton, muscular system and nervous systems can be used to show students what parts of the human body looks like up close. This is by engaging students and by providing 3-dimensional models related to the current area of study in Biology. This can enhance effective teaching and learning of Biology thus improves academic achievement of school students in the subject.

Teaching Aids from the immediate environment used by the teachers in the teaching-learning process have strong impression on the minds of the students. Its effect on the students helps to bridge the gap between reality and abstract. According to Ogunbi (2011), when teaching resources are from the immediate environment and use effectively, it makes learning more interesting and lively. It also helps to retain interest of the learners during the delivery of Biology lessons in the classroom.

 

As put forward by Akanbi (2008), improvised teaching resources are relatively cheaper than the imported or standard resources. Thus, they are easily available for use by Biology teachers. Also, improvisation of teaching resources by the teacher creates an opportunity for students to participate in the provision of teaching materials. It affords students the opportunity to exhibit such creative skill while participating in the provision of some of the teaching resource use for the delivery of Biology lessons. Thus, this will aid greatly in their academic achievement.

Moreover, students interpret instructional activities in terms of what they already know; they actively seek to relate new concepts, attitudes or skills on their prior set of concepts, attitudes or skills. Therefore, for better outcome of teaching/learning processes, two components should be considered which are input and outputs. Inputs consist of human and material resources while outputs are goals realization of the teaching learning process. These human and material resources which are termed instructional resources are important to the teaching of Biology in the school curriculum.

This resource arouses students’ interest and at the same time helps train learners to think things out themselves. In-depth understanding of such a lesson and makes learning interactive. Thereby, motivating them to learn. Therefore, this research shall attempt to find out Teaching Aids and students academic performance in Biology in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Biology as a subject is activity oriented and resource-based. This is inadequate utilization of learning resources within the learners’ environment by Biology teachers. So the teaching of Biology without learning materials might result to poor academic achievement and lack of interest in the subject among students.

However, this has greatly resulted in poor academic achievement among Biology students. The study therefore, attempts to investigate the influence of improvised teaching resources on academic achievement of Biology students.

Unfortunately, despite the important of this subject, students’ academic performance has experience a continuous fall in it and this is worrisome and called for investigations. However, the chief examiner of West African Council Examination (WACE) in 2015 reported that out of 616, 370 candidates who sat for the examination representing 38.68% obtained five credits and above including mathematics and English Language with this result, the expected percent is not achieved.

 

The chief examiner attributed this to several factors such as lack of teaching equipment, school variables and home local variables amongst others (Adesulu, 2015). In the authors view, poor academic performance is science is due to lack of teaching resources in secondary schools.

This trigger the researcher’s interest to ask; could the use of Teaching Aids influence the academic performance of students in Biology particularly in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area? Hence, finding answer to this question motivated the researcher. To investigate on Teaching Aids and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

 

1.3    Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this research was to find Teaching Aids and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area. Specifically, the study intends to:

  • Investigate the academic performance of students taught using Teaching Aids and those taught without Teaching Aids in Biology in Ukanafun Local Government Area; and
  • Examine gender difference and academic performance of students taught using Teaching Aids in Biology in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

 

1.4    Significance of the study

                   This study shall be significance in the following ways:

  • The findings of this study shall reduce abstraction in Biology thereby concretizing learning concept which directly increases the academic performance of students
  • The findings of this study will serve as a guide to teachers on the effective use of Teaching Aids during the teaching learning process.
  • The study will be of help to curriculum planners as it assists them in taking into considerations the use of Teaching Aids in Biology teaching.
  • Ministry of Education can now assess the provision of teaching resources in our secondary school for the teaching of Biology in schools.
  • The study will serve as the reference point to other students/scholars who will be researching in the same topic.

 

1.5    Research Questions

  • Could the academic performance of students taught Biology using Teaching Aids significant difference from those taught Biology without using teaching aids ?
  • Could there be any significant difference between academic performance of (gender) male and female students taught using teaching aids ?

 

1.6    Research Hypotheses

  • There is no significant difference between academic performance of students taught Biology using Teaching Aids and those taught without teaching aids
  • There is no significant difference between academic performance of (gender) male and female students taught Biology using teaching aids

 

1.7    Delimitation of the study

This study focused on Teaching Aids and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

1.8    Operational Definition of Terms

Teaching aids :These are those materials gotten from the immediate environment which are used to support teaching and learning process.

Academic Performance: This is the extent to which a student achieves in an examination or test that is the grade or scores of the student.

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