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Title Page


Approval Page




Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices



1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions


1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms



2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review


CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique


3.5       Instrumentation

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2           Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis



4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings



5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study






1.1   Background to the study

Without a doubt, success in certain endeavours may be true of achievement in schooling. Good achievement in schooling could be the partial contribution of several factors such as teacher, pupil and school variable among others. Adodo (2017) argued that one key overriding factor for the success of pupil’s academic achievement is the teachers.


In the same vein Ibrahim (2020), believed that teacher charts qualification and exposure can go a long way to bring about pupil’s high academic performance. It is probably for this reason; Ibukun (2019) asserted that no education system can be rise above the quality of its teachers. Considering the assertions it implies that teachers role in the preparation of pupil’s to successes in examinations cannot be undermined.



Grave stock and curator Greenleaf (2018) states that the explanation for good or poor pupil’s academic performance have been quite exhaustive yet controversy still exists among scholars as to what contribute single or jointly to pupil’s poor performance.

Be that as it may the important role of the teachers in learning is unquestionable. Indeed, teachers have a lot of influence on the classroom practice. In fact, teachers should have and apply specific abilities without which their influence may not be reflected for pupils to be able to make connection between what is taught in school and its application in problem solving in real life, the teacher has to be effective in their teaching.


In addition, Adeogun (2015) opined that the quality of the educational system depends on the quality of its teaching. Staff and that a school without human resources may not be able to achieve the goal and objective of the educational system, Adesina (1980) also noted that teachers are the major indication and determinate of quality education. In fact, highly professional teacher who are dedicated are needed in schools. It has been established accounting to correlation between what teacher knows and what they teach.

Thus, the ability to teach effectively depends on the teacher’s knowledge and knowledge occurs in a variety of forms. Undeniably, teacher effectiveness is impeded if the teacher is unfamiliar with the body of knowledge taught. Thus, the implication of this for teacher is that they must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach.


Usman (2023) argued that shortage of qualified teachers is responsible for the poor academic performance observable among the pupils while Ademulegun (2021) argued that pupils taught by more qualified and experience teachers in terms of knowledge of the subject matter performs batter then those taught by less qualified but experienced teachers.

Therefore, it is evident from the above background, that this study aimed to examine teachers’ variables and academic performance of pupils in basic science.


1.2   Statement of the Problem

Undeniably, successful management and realization of objective of teaching to a large extend can be attributed to many factors. Some of these factors include teachers’ availability as well as their effectiveness. The researcher has observed that despite the importance role of teachers in the teachings learning process, there has been poor performance of pupils in their first school leaving certification examinations.

Basic science being the core science subject that is offered by all pupils junior secondary level of education as been seen to have been faced with the challenges faced by other subjects in terms of poor performance of pupils.

Consequently, this poor performance’ among pupils has caused serious concern among teachers, parent, government and educational administrators. Undeniably, the parents and teachers have blamed the pupils for not reading.


Owning to the fact that no education can rise above the level of its teachers, the researcher was triggered to ask, “Could teachers variable such as qualification and teaching years of experience contribute to this poor academic performance?”

However, scholars and researchers generally are in agreement that teacher variable such as qualifications, relevant years of teaching experience seen to perform or critical role in educational achievement of pupils. However, none of these studies had been conducted in primary schools in Uruan Local Government Area on the teaching and learning of basic science as a school subject. Therefore, this study aimed to examine teachers’ variables and academic performance of pupils in basic science.


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to aimed to examine teachers’ variables and academic performance of pupils in basic science. Specifically, the study was designed to:

(1)    Examine the difference between teacher’s qualifications and pupil’s academic performance in Basic Science.

(ii)    Determine the difference between teachers teaching experience and pupils academic performance in Basic Science.


1.4   Significance of the Study

(i)     To the school administrators, the findings of this study will guide them in method of recruiting teachers as well as effective supervision and monitoring of teaching and learning in schools.

(ii)    To the teachers, it will create awareness on the need to be effective in their teaching and be supportive to pupils in order to achieve increased achievement in examinations. The teachers’ variables and academic performance of pupils in basic science.


(iii)    Generally, it will enlighten all educational state holders on ways to positively achieve higher pupil’s academic performance.

(iv)   Lastly, it is intended that the findings of this study will serve as a reference material for future study on relationship between teacher’s variable and pupils academic performance in Basic Science and any other relevant subject.


1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated for the study:

(i)     There is no significant relationship between teachers qualification and pupils academic performance in Basic Science.

(ii)    There is no significant relationship between teachers teaching experience and pupils academic performance in Basic Science.


1.6   Delimitation of the Study

This research considered only the influence of teacher’s variable qualification and teaching experience at the exclusion of other variables which may also exert effects on pupil’s academic performance in Basic Science.


Definition of Terms

Teacher: In brief, a person who delivers instructions to pupils in school voluntarily or obligatorily aimed at inducing learning and change in behaviour.

Variable: Characteristic, quality among human beings such as teacher in this study that can vary from teacher to teacher and with time. Thus, the attributes that can be used to quality the personality of the teachers.

Academic Performance: In brief, this is the score/grade a pupils obtain in an achievement test or examinations.

Basic Science: This is a school science subject which comprises of all the area of Science such Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Geography and Mathematics.



In brief, based on the findings of this study, it is evident that the heart of Nigerian educational system is the teacher and that teachers are the major indicators and determinant of quality education.

Therefore, it is concluded that: employment of teachers in the school system should be based on qualification as this can affect academic performance of pupils in basic science in primary schools; more experienced teachers are better equipped in classroom teaching techniques, subject mastery and lesson delivery and this influence the academic performance of pupils in basic science in primary schools.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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