Research Proposals

TEACHERS’ PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

TEACHERS’ PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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 ABSTRACT

 The study investigated teachers’ personal characteristics and students’ academic achievement in junior secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A survey design was used for the study.

The population for the study was made up of all the Basic science teachers currently teaching Basic science junior in junior secondary 2 in all public secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area. The instrument used for data collection was Teacher’s Characteristics Questionnaire (TCQ). Mean, standard deviation and independent t-test statistics were used to analyze the data obtained.

 

The result revealed that there is a significant influence of teachers’ educational qualification, years of experience and communication skills on academic performance of Basic science students in secondary schools.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Approval Page                                                                                                           iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Abstract                                                                                                                      vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vii

Lists of Tables                                                                                                             xi

List of Appendices                                                                                                     xii

CHAPTER ONE:         INTRODUCTION                                                          1

1.1     Background to the study                                                                          1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                         4

1.3       Purpose of the study                                                                                       5

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                         5

1.5       Statement of Hypotheses                                                                                6

1.6       Significance of the study                                                                                6

1.7       Scope of the study                                                                                          7

1.8       Definition of Terms                                                                                        7

 

CHAPTER TWO:        REVIEW OF LITERATURE                                   9         

2.1       Conceptual Framework                                                                                   9

2.1.1    Teachers’ Characteristics                                                                                9

2.1.2    Teacher’s Qualification                                                                                   11

2.1.3    Teachers’ Teaching Experience                                                                       13

2.1.4    Teachers’ Communication Skills                                                                     14

2.2       Theoretical Framework                                                                                   17

2.2.1    Lewin’s Field Theory of Motivation (Kurt Lewin, 1940)                              17

2.2.2    Social Constructivism (Lev Vygotsky, 1978)                                                 18

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies                                                                          21

2.3.1    Teachers’ Characteristics and Students’ Academic Performance

in Basic science Review of Empirical Studies                                                            21

2.3.2    Qualification and Students’ Academic Performance

in Basic science Review of Empirical Studies                                                            22

2.3.3    Teaching Experience and Students’ Academic Performance

in Basic science Review of Empirical Studies                                                            23

2.3.4    Communication Skills and Students’ Academic Performance

in Basic science Review of Empirical Studies                                                            25

2.4       Summary of Literature Reviewed                                                                  27

 

CHAPTER THREE:    RESEARCH METHOD                                  28

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             28

3.2       Area of Study                                                                                                 28

3.3       Population of Study                                                                                        30

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                    30

3.5       Instrumentation                                                                                               30

3.5.1    Validity of Research Instrument                                                                    31

3.5.2    Reliability of the Instruments                                                                         31

3.6       Method of Data Collection                                                                             31

3.7       Method of Data Analyses                                                                               32

CHAPTER FOUR:       RESULTS                                                              33

4.1       Answering of the Research Questions                                                            33

4.2       Testing of Hypotheses                                                                                                35

4.3       Summary of Findings                                                                                                 38

CHAPTER FIVE:  DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                    40

5.1       Discussion of Findings                                                                                   40

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      42

5.3       Educational Implication of the Findings                                                        42

5.4       Limitation of the Study                                                                                  43

5.5       Recommendations                                                                                          43

5.6       Suggestions for Further Study                                                                        44

References                                                                                                      46

Appendices                                                                                                     50

 

 

LISTS OF TABLES

Table 1:          Mean and standard deviation on influence of teachers’

educational qualification on students’ academic

performance in Basic science                                                              33

Table 2:          Mean and standard deviation on influence of teachers’

Teaching experience on students’ academic

performance in Basic science                                                              34

Table 3:          Mean and standard deviation on influence of teachers’

Communication skill on students’ academic

performance in Basic science                                                              35

Table 4:          Summary of one way ANOVA result on influence of teachers’

educational qualification on students’ academic

performance in Basic science                                                              36

Table 5:          Independent sample t-test analysis on influence of teachers’

Teaching experience on students’ academic

performance in Basic science                                                              37

Table 6:          Independent sample t-test analysis on influence of teachers’

Communication skill on students’ academic

performance in Basic science                                                              38

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX A:          Computer Printout of Scores of Students                              50

APPENDIX B:          Teachers’ Characteristics Questionnaire                                 55

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Teachers are essential in the entire educational system of any nation and are pivots on which education wheels revolve. Ashimole (2011) emphasized that teaching and learning depends largely on teachers, and that it is on teachers’ number, quality and devotion that rest the effectiveness of all educational arrangements, development and growth. Similarly Akinsolu (2010) observed that teachers are vital pre– requisites for pupils’ attainment of educational goals and objectives.

 

The Federal Republic of Nigeria in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2006) also recognized the importance of teachers by stating that no nation’s education system can be greater than the standard of their teachers. Therefore, teachers remain the major factor in any educational system, and their quality of teaching is undoubtedly one of the most important factors shaping the teaching /learning and performance of pupils (Fenstermacher & Richardson, 2005).

 

The teacher is ultimately responsible for translating educational policies and principles into actions based on practice during interaction with the students. Therefore, researches abound on contributions of teachers to educational performance of pupils (Mushtaq & Kahn, 2012).

 

However, pupils’ academic performance in both internal and external examinations has persistently been reported low and has always been attributed to classroom characteristics of teachers (Ibe, 2013). Teacher characteristics in this study are those attributes, characters and behaviours exhibited by teachers in the classroom and during teaching and learning process.

Moroever, teachers’ characteristics examined in this study are teacher’s Gender, teaching experience, qualification, interpersonal relationship with the pupils and teachers’ knowledge of subject matter. The prevailing conditions of these factors would definitely have a negative or positive influence on the instructional quality in schools, which may translate to either good or poor academic achievement of primary school pupils.

 

Orlando (2013) listed nine behaviours/characteristics of an effective teacher which are respect for pupils, creating a sense of community and belonging in the classroom, warm, accessible, enthusiastic and caring, ability to set high expectations for all pupils, has his own love for learning, a skilled leader, ability to “shift-gears” and flexible when a lesson isn’t working, collaboration with colleagues on an on-going basis and maintenance of professionalism.

Many variables affect pupils’ academic performance. They include family life, community, diet, involvement in extracurricular activities, and the school environment.

 

Teachers however, have a direct responsibility to shape a pupil’s academic pupils academic performance, and are the most important school-based factor in their education (e.g. Rockoff 2007; Rivkin, Hanushek and Kain 2008; Aaronson, Barrow and Sander 2007). This is why it is important to examine which teacher characteristics may be related to pupils academic performance. Every school has a different mix of teacher experience, education, teacher attendance, and pupils-teacher-ratio, among other readily available measures.

 

Considering which teacher characteristics produce the best student achievement at the school level can help the school in identifying unique ways to increase pupils’ achievement with the teacher resources available to them. Examining the relationship between teacher characteristics and student achievement at the school-level allows me to look at the school and examine if there are certain teacher qualities that increase the school’s overall student achievement.

This is important for education administrators because knowing what teacher characteristics influence pupil academic performance will help the school’s administration make adjustments in order to increase pupil academic performance.

 

Despite the importance of Basic Science in the junior secondary schools, the study of it has been bedeviled with certain challenges which include inappropriate method of teaching, poor learning environment, student’s perception of the subject as difficult, availability of instructional aids, among others (Mutodi and Ngriande, 2014). These hindrances according to researchers like Ekanem, (2014) and Kevin (2006) had led to the poor academic achievement of students in school examinations. Be that as it may, the important role of the teachers in learning is unquestionable.

 

The teacher has to be effective in their teaching. Adeogun (2015) opined that the quality of educational system depends on the quality of its teaching staff and that a school without human resources may not be able to achieve the goal and objective of the educational system, Ekanem (2011) also noted that teachers are the major indication and determinate of quality education.

Correspondingly, Okokon (2017) put forward that the importance of teachers’ characteristics in realizing educational goals and objectives in any educational system cannot be overemphasized. Furthermore, teachers’ characteristics are the instructional behaviours exhibited by the teachers towards goals attainment. Thus, these include: teachers’ qualification, teachers’ years of teaching experience and teachers’ communication skills.

 

TEACHERS’ PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Obviously, successful teachers’ characteristics are those that have been found by researchers to be related to improved achievement of students’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor outcomes in education (Udo, 2018). Furthermore, bedrock of an educational system has on a core of devoted, knowledgeable, competent and well-trained professional teachers which must commit themselves to the effective delivery of the lesson contents to the learners (Ekanem, 2011).

In addition, Ademulegun (2011) asserted that there is an established correlation between what teacher knows and what they teach. Thus the ability to teach effectively depends on the teacher’s knowledge and knowledge occurs in a variety of forms. Thus, the implication of this for teacher is that they must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach.

Usman (2013) asserted that shortage of qualified teachers is responsible for the poor academic performance observable among the learners while Ademulegun (2011) argued that learners taught by more qualified and experienced teachers in terms of knowledge of the subject matter perform better than those taught by less qualified but experienced teachers.

 

Therefore, it is against this background that this research investigated teachers’ characteristics and academic performance of students in Basic science in selected secondary schools.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Basic science being the core science subject that is offered by science students in junior secondary level of education and at college and university level has been faced with the challenges of poor performance of students as observed by the researcher during her experience during teaching practice.

However, the teachers have blamed the students for not reading and for displaying lackadaisical attitudes towards learning of the subject. Teachers’ personal characteristics and students’ academic achievement in junior secondary schools.

 

Owing to the fact that no education can rise above the level of its teachers, the researcher was triggered to ask, “Could teachers’ characteristics such as qualification, teaching years of experience and communication skill contribute to this poor academic performance among Basic science students?”

Some researchers have observed that variables such as gender, and attitude are some of the characteristics that could influence the teaching effectiveness of teachers hence affecting students’ academic performance adversely.

Therefore, it is this existing gap that this present study intended to fill up by undertaking the research on “teachers’ personal characteristics (qualification, years of teaching experience and communication skills) and academic performance of Basic science students in junior secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area”.

 

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ personal characteristics and academic performance of Basic science students in secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area. Specifically the study was designed to:

(i)         Examine the influence of teacher’s qualifications on academic performance of Basic science students in secondary schools.

(ii)        Determine the influence of teacher’s years of teaching experience on academic performance of Basic science students in secondary schools.

(iii)       Investigate the influence of teacher’s communication skills on academic performance of Basic science students in secondary schools.

 

1.4       Research Questions

(i)         How does teachers’ educational qualifications of teachers influence academic performance of Basic science students?

(ii)        Does years of experience of teachers influence academic performance of Basic science students?

(iii)       To what extent do teachers’ communication skills influence academic performance of Basic science students?

 

1.5       Research Hypotheses

Ho1      There is no significant influence of teachers’ educational qualification on academic performance of Basic science students in secondary schools.

Ho2        There is no significant influence of teachers’ years of experience of teachers on academic performance of Basic science students in secondary schools.

Ho3        There is no significant influence of teachers’ communication skills on academic performance of Basic science students in secondary schools.

 

1.6       Significance of the Study

This study would be significant in many ways to head teachers, teachers, parents, students, school administrators and future researchers.

Findings of this study would sensitize head of schools about the importance of teachers in the educational system and would guide them in providing a motivating teaching environment for the teachers.

The teachers’ awareness shall be created on the need for effectiveness in teaching and supportiveness to students in order to achieve improved performance in examinations. The students shall also benefit by having enabling and enriched teachers with adequate resources that enhance their effective learning of Basic science.

 

This study would serve as index for further studies in the area of academic performance of students and may also serve as a reference index in a review of related literature to students of education who may wish to take-up further research in the area of teachers’ characteristics and academic performance of Basic science students and other related field.

 

1.7      Definition of Terms

Teachers’ characteristics: In brief, these are the personal qualities possessed by teachers. Specifically, they include educational qualification, years of teaching experience and communication skills.

Teacher’s qualification: This is the level of educational attainment of the teacher which according to the study includes: NCE, B.Sc. (Ed.), B.A. (Ed.) for the secondary school teachers.

Teacher’s years of teaching experience: In brief, this is the year spent by the teacher in classroom teaching.

Communication Skills: This is the proficiency of the teacher in passing ideas and knowledge to the students.

Teacher: A person who delivers instructions to learners in school voluntarily or obligatorily aimed at inducing learning and change in behaviour.

Academic achievement: The scores obtained by students in an examination and continuous assessment in junior secondary school.

Junior Secondary school: Junior Secondary is a phase of education in state secondary schools for Years 7, 8 and 9, which helps to ensure the bridge between primary and secondary school is safe, strong and consistent for all students.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

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