Research Proposals



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Title Page





Table of Contents



1.1     Background to the study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Research Questions


1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6     Significance of the study

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

1.8     Limitation of the Study

1.9     Definition of Terms




3.1     Research Design

3.2     Area for the study

3.3    Population for the study

3.4     Sampling and Sampling Technique

3.5     Instrumentation


3.6     Instrument Validation

3.7     Administration of Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis



4.1     Data Presentation and Analysis

4.2     Discussion of Result



5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

5.4     Suggestions for further study






1.1     Background to the Study

For many years, education and researchers have debated which school variables influence students’ performance. As policymakers become more involved in school reform, this question takes on new importance since their many initiatives rely on presumed relationship between various educations related factors and learning outcomes.

As new standard for students, learning have been introduced across the state. Greater attention has been given to the role that teacher variables play in students’ performance. National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (NCTAF, 1996) and National education goals panel (1998) postulated that despite conventional wisdom that schools inputs, it makes little difference in students learning.



However, a growing body of research suggests that schools an make difference and a substantial portion of that difference is attributable to the teachers.

Subject matter knowledge is another variable that one might or could be related to teacher characteristics while there is some support for this assumption.

In fact, the findings are not as strong and consistent as one might suppose. This is shown by the studies of teachers’ scores as measured by students’ outcomes or supervisory ratings.

Therefore, Eddie (2006) asks, with the up setting exposition of the shortage and half-baked teacher employed to teach in the nations schools, how are we sure that the recent U.B.E programme will be successful? Are the teacher motivated to perform their duties contentiously? How would the teachers work when their salaries are not paid as at when due? Then who is ready to go into teaching profession after being aware of now the government maltreats the teachers? How will this policy work when most of the schools in the rural and sub-urban area lack conducive accommodation and the students sit on the bare floor nor under the trees for studies.

Without reservation, the characteristics of teachers is one of the enabling tools that help to drive this noble objectives to a logical conclusion and sometimes impede its exceptions techniques to maintain performance of students and maximize individual learning within a group teaching environment.

In addition, a teacher should be able to:

–        Evaluable and communicate students progress

–        Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help.

–        Meet with other professionals to discuss individual student needs progress.

–        Volunteer to supervise extra- curriculum during and after school activities.

–        Attend meeting seminars and service training sessions.

More of these additional variables are carried out after regular school hours and add considerable length of the working day.

The essence of this achievement was to provide or produce motivated conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all level of our educational system. It was also to encourage the spirit of enquiry and creating in teachers and help the teachers to fit into the social life of community and society at large and to enhance their commitment to National objectives to provide teachers with intellectual and professional background.

In Nigeria, National Curriculum Conference held in Lagos on September, 1969 made tangible contributions to the development of education as the conference arrived at the following areas:

–           National philosophy of Education

–           Goals of primary education

–           Objectives of secondary Education

–           Purpose of tertiary education

–           The role of teacher education etc.


Hansen and Kreitzer (2020) spelt out interest in secondary schools to include:

  • identifying students individual and collective learning needs.
  • Planning and delivering instruction based on students learning needs and special need.
  • providing a stimulating environment in which each student can experience growth and development to his or her potential and
  • Help students learn appropriately knowledge skill and attitudes. They further mentioned that secondary classes vary in size and are made up of students who represent a broad range of abilities, interest, needs and problems. Teachers use various instructional adequate for their assignment situation not only in the life of the country but in the wider world to enhance the community to the teaching profession (Ekanem, 2023). It is also noted that teachers that handle subject like Biology must have skill and method of teaching, teaching qualification, good manners as well as a better teacher-students relationship. The teachers characteristics and academic achievement of students in biology.

Biology as a subject is designed in line with the educational curriculum of the federal ministry of educational and is “subject centered design” which organizes knowledge into what is called “subject” (Eddie, 2006). However the teacher is a trained professional with knowledge and skill as well as a level of competence in the task of teaching and remodeling the students under their care. Thus, a typical teacher sees his role in relationship with learners, ministry official, parents of learners and local community. Therefore, this study aimed to examine teachers characteristics and academic achievement of students in biology.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Many teachers in Nigerian school system lack the type of training required to make them feel confident and adjust in the teaching-learning situation.

Due to their levels of training and self application, most of these teachers who teach at the secondary school, many do not know what is involved in teaching at that level, and some are even confused of what their role should be in model classroom. Moreovoer, most feel that their task is to force knowledge into heads of unwilling learners. This always lead to self misapplication among teachers, lack of good manners, inability to relate with the students positively for them to achieve goals. The teachers characteristics and academic achievement of students in biology.

This and other factors that affect subject interest in Biology leads to this research work on the topic teachers characteristics and academic achievement of students in biology.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was meant to examine teachers characteristics and academic achievement of students in biology. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. To investigate the influence of teachers’ gender on the academic achievement of students in Biology.
  2. To examine the effect of teachers qualification on the academic achievement of students in Biology in secondary schools. .


1.4 Significance of the Study

The study of teachers’ characteristics and students’ achievement in Biology will provide adequate information on the relevance of positive teacher’s strategy classroom instruction. Firstly, it is hoped that this will be helpful to our teachers. Secondly, teachers in our secondary schools would see the need to have good manners, good behaviour, teaching qualification and select suitable teaching methods for their lessons.

Also, it is believed that the study will throw more light on the quality of teachers employed in secondary schools. The results of the study would also reveal performance in the subject of Biology.


1.5 Research Hypotheses

To guide the study, the following hypotheses were formulated:

  • There is no significant difference in academic achievement between students taught Biology by male teachers and those taught by female teachers.
  • There is no significant difference in academic achievement between students taught Biology by B.Ed. teachers and those taught by NCE teachers.


1.6 Limitation of the Study

In writing a research work of this nature certain constraint are bound to occur, some of these include:

Time given for the completion of the study was inadequate and this hindered the research work from having a wider scope. Finance constraint exerted a felt influence on the study because the researcher found it tough to expand the study.  The researcher also faced challenges like inability to reach out for enough empirical materials since it is new concept.  The teachers characteristics and academic achievement of students in biology.


Definition of Terms

Teachers Characteristics: As used in this study refers to gender and qualification of a teacher.

Academic Achievement: In brief, this refers to child’s examination scores or result in school.

Biology: Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organism, including their structure, functions etc.



Bases on the findings of this study the following conclusions were  drawn there is significant means difference in the academic performance between students taught Biology by male teachers and students taught by female teachers.

Students taught Biology by B.Ed. teachers habit high mean scores than those taught by N.C.E teachers.

The strength of an educational system largely depends on the quality of its teachers.


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Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research.

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