DISCOUNT Sales!!! Get complete material at 45 percent Discount TODAY - Pay 1350 instead of ₦3000. Call/WhatsApp 07068634102




1.1       Background to the Study

The term “syntax” comes from the Greek language, meaning “arrange together.” The term is also used to mean the study of the syntactic properties of a language. In linguistics for instance, “syntax” refers to the rules that govern the ways in which words are combined to form phrases, clauses and sentences.

In written form, some language components are included such as syntax. According to Andi (2023) as quoted in Educia Journal, syntax is the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are built in a particular language. This is a part of linguistics that studies the rules or relationships that govern the way words become form phrases, or phrases become sentence forms.

In general, there are four skills in English, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing as quoted by Sari 2013). Writing  as  part  of  language  skills  listen,  read,  speak.



In addition, the writing system is a written system of symbols representing a language sound, syllable, or word (Denny  et  al., 2014; Odilovna 2018;  Treiman  &  Kessler,2022). From  the  above statement, it can be seen that writing is a very important subject because we are not only Manage sharing ideas from the brain but need to pay attention to the rules of language itself. It’s not  easy  to  choose  words  and  combine  them  into  a  good  paragraph  (Wang  et  al., 2020; Lewis  et  al., 2019;  Brown  et  al., 2020).

Moreover, we  must  pay  attention  to  grammatical sentences. In addition, we must pay attention to grammatical sentences. That is, it naturally, if students  find  writing  difficult  because  they  have  to  pay  attention  many  things  like;  ideas, concepts,  vocabulary,  and  grammar.  If  you  don’t  pay  attention  to  these  things,  it  will  cause many  errors,  one  of  which  is  syntax  errors  (Muthiah 2021;  Ratnaningsih  &  Azizah, 2019).


Syntax  errors  are  errors  in  the  use  of  language,  common  syntactic  errors  are  incomplete sentence structure, subject verb agreement errors, improper use of conjunctions, prepositions, articles, etc.


Evidence of this abounds in the type of errors committed by students in their written works. Truly, learners’ written aspects of English manifest with errors and also reflect in their level of incompetence. On this point, Ibileye (2017) in his research exposed some letters badly written by first year students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, as he laments over the inadequate knowledge of the use of English by the students.

As offensive as the errors may be, what is more important and beneficial to the students is how these errors should be corrected and be avoided in future and how to get communicative ability of students enhanced. In the Nigerian school system, the English language is both a teaching subject and a language of instruction at the primary and post primary levels.


It is also the expectation of Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education in Nigerian society that graduates and under-graduates should be able to perform in the written and speaking aspects of English language with competence and even teach others.

With too many errors in their written works, it becomes imperative that something needs to be done to help solve the problem of poor English usage among students. The above situation prompts the researcher on investigating the Syntactic Errors in the Written English of the students of English in Akwa Ibom State College of Education to provide solution to the above mentioned problems.


1.2       Statement of the Problem

It is obvious that majority of Nigerian students find their way into Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education, with poor background knowledge of English. Inherent in these students is the problem of poor expressions in the language.

For example, the suffixes, ‘s’ and ‘es’ according to Andi (2023) are generally used to show plurality in the English language, however, there are some exceptions to this rule as in the case of ‘man’ and ‘men’.

The speaker/user of English as a second language may not be aware of these exceptions thus, he/she may say or write ‘mans’ as the plural for ‘man’. This is evident in the incessant errors committed by  students of English in their written works.

It is also very disgusting and disheartening that these students cannot communicate in their writing and speaking aspect. The situation calls for attention because these are prospective teachers and future leaders who will come into society to put into service the knowledge they have gained from their lecturers.


1.3       Objectives of the Study

This study aims at investigating the Syntactic Errors in Written English of Students of English in Akwa Ibom State College of Education. Specifically, the study intends:

  1. to identify and systematically analyse the errors committed in writing by  students of English in Akwa Ibom State College of Education with a view of finding out those areas of difficulty that pose challenges in their written aspect.
  2. to classify the syntactic errors into various error types and critically explain the reasons that might have occasioned in writing by the students.
  3. to propose strategies for dealing with syntactic errors in contributing to the development of Standard English among Nigerian students and help to attain a better proficiency in their writings.


1.4       Significance of the Study

This study is important because its findings will provide solution to the phenomenon of errors committed by this category of students in Nigeria and provide a feedback to the students in their language performance.

Awareness of these errors will eventually empower them in making serious efforts to learn the correct usage. Students will also use the findings and recommendations from this study to eradicate the causes of syntactic errors in their writing and speaking aspect.

It is strongly expected that the students, the lecturers, the curriculum designers and the textbook writers will benefit immensely from the findings and recommendations of this work as to enhance the English expressions of students.


 1.5       Research Questions  

The following research questions guided the study.

  1. what are the problems of Syntactic Errors in Written English among Students of English  in Akwa Ibom State College of Education?
  2. What are the possible causes of Syntactic Errors in Written English Grammar among Students of English from their teacher’s perspective?
  3. What can be done to reduce or stamp out the Syntactic Errors in the speaking and learning of English Grammar among Students of English?



This study investigated syntactic errors in written English of students of English in Akwa Ibom State College of Education. The findings show that some error types occur more frequently than the others. The sources of the errors are both inter-lingual and intra-lingual.

In addition to these sources are students’ laxities in studying and inability in putting into practice what have been learnt. The implications of the study together with the recommendations are given.

It is believed that if the implications and the recommendations are seriously adhered to, the problem of poor and incorrect English usage will be drastically minimized and the standard of English will be upgraded.

Finally, suggestions for further studies are given to encourage others to join in the fight against the problems of wrong and poor English expressions in Nigeria, especially among the graduates and undergraduates.


DISCLAIMER: THIS WEBSITE CONTAINS A PROJECT GUIDE aimed to guide project students in writing their original project. Therefore, all information, including but not limited to, text, graphics, images and other material contained on this website are for educational and informational purposes for students, researchers and readers only. To get more useful contents on educational project or instant download of complete project material on any topic or project writing services. Reach out to us with +2347068634102

About Joselyn Nya 502 Articles
My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: