Research Proposals



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Title Page





Table of Contents



1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study


1.5    Research Questions

1.6    Delimitation of the Study

1.7    Limitation of the Study

1.8    Definition of Terms




3.1    Area of the Study

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique


3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

3.6    Validation of the Instrument

3.7    Reliability of Instrument

3.8    Administration of the Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis



4.1    Data Analysis

4.2    Discussion of Findings



5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestions for further Study






1.1  Background to the Study

It is apparent that the subject of Economics is much accepted to the generality of students irrespective of whether they are in the humanities (Arts) or Sciences. According to Adeyeni (2020), Economics seems to be a basic entry requirement for admission in most management and Social Science courses in most universities and other higher institutions in the world.

Moreover, this corroborate the assertion of Onuka (2016) that business/management derives it’s existence from Economics, which means that Economics is the root from which business/management and all management related discipline such as insurance, accounting, purchasing and supply, marketing personnel just to mention but a few derived their existence.

Thus, the position of Economics as a center point in resource management training equally demands that the relevant motivation be given to learners for effective learning and application of the subject. Therefore, motivation is taken to be a strong ingredient for high academic performance.


According to Sheridan (2021) adolescents who have experienced both positive and negative peer relations become motivated to achieve comfortable self-image that could help in good academic performance. Furthermore, Beck (2023) stated that motivation is broadly concerned with the contemporary determinants of choice, persistence and vigor of goal directed behaviour. The students motivation and academic performance of students in economics.

In this regards therefore, the significance of motivation in teaching determine some appropriate motivational variable which teachers should adopt much especially in the teaching and learning of Economics. This strategy of motivation in the teaching learning experience can appropriately be made applicable to the teaching and learning of other school subjects especially in the social sciences.


To this end, teachers without proper qualifications and adequate competence will produced poorly performing students because such teacher lacks the required ability to properly motivate the students to achieve both stated and expected goals.



Child (2013) maintains that left to themselves, the majority of students would not learn to read without been prompted by adults. Hence, the knowledge of motivation is crucial to a teacher for without knowledge of the ways and means of encouraging student’s learning, knowing about their appetites in the wildest sense of the word and being sensitive to their interests, the teacher’s task would be impossible.

Herbert (2015) submits that teachers are powerful behaviour modifiers for children with school problems. The teacher often controls the mood of students’ assessment records as this influence the learner’s academic performance. A case where teachers are permissive will create way for students to exhibit extraneous behaviour, which may affect their academic performance negatively. In the same vein, domineering and harsh teacher may put students in serious emotional crises thereby perpetuating academic risk.

This project is a study on motivation and academic performance of students. The focus here is to investigate how the motivational factor impacts on student’s academic performance in the subject of Economics in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria using schools in Itu Local Government Area as case study.


1.2  Statement of the Problem

The generally observed trend is that student’s performance in the subject of Economics in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria is below expectations. This poor performance rating has been attributed to several factors or indices some of which do not yield to a consistent measurement.

However, the central problem confronting educational organization in Nigeria as a whole is the ability to achieve stated goals in the learners through provision of educational facilities and motivation. Most studies suggest that additional motivation variables typically translate to gains in student’s academic performance, such variables includes; classroom ratio, class size, school resources and mechanism of rewards. When all these factors are variables, student’s performance will be encouraged.


On the other hand, when all these mentioned variables are not there, there is reduction in optimum performance on the part of the students and thus less achievement on the part of the students. Level of student’s performance and achievement may not result from the student’s ability and capacity to perform. But this may be directly connected to the extent of classroom motivation by the teacher and environment.

Since motivation is seen to be a cardinal factor in the teaching learning process, the problem of this study therefore is to find out the extent to which classroom motivation by the teacher influence academic performance of students in Economics in Itu Local Government Area.


1.3  Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of the study was to examine the influence of motivation and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.  Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. Examine teacher’s use of rewards on student’s academic performance in Economics.
  2. To find out if teaching strategies use by teachers of Economics influence academic performance of students in the subject.
  3. To assess how school environment affects student’s academic performance in Economics.


1.4  Significance of the Study

The study is significant in that, it will bring to light the role of motivation in the classroom experience of Economics students in secondary schools. Whether this element of motivation is an added factor to achievement by students of Economics in schools will also be highlighted. Thus, this will include identifying appropriate strategies to be employed by the teacher to arrive at student’s academic achievement/performance in the subject of Economics. The students motivation and academic performance of students in economics.

Furthermore, it will also help to enrich the competence of both teachers and students in the teaching and learning experience in the subject of Economics in Nigeria. In addition, the findings will enrich the existing knowledge on motivation and academic performance and at the same time provide a basis or stepping stone to further researchers on the topic of motivation.


1.5 Research Questions

The study is guided by the following research questions:

  1. To what extent does teacher’s use of rewards influence student’s academic performance in Economics?
  2. Does teaching strategies use by the subject teacher influence academic performance of students in Economics?
  3. Does school environment influence student’s academic performance in Economics?


Definition of Terms

Motivation: This is a force which initiates, energize, sustains and stimulates learners’ behaviour to act towards a chosen goal.

Academic Performance: This refers to knowledge attained or skill developed in the school subject.

School Environment: This encompasses the factors within the school that may or may not provide suitable conditions for the promotion of effective teaching and learning.

Students: This refers to a learner, particularly in a secondary school.



To conclude, findings of the study illustrate that motivation improves academic performance of students in Economics. As such, students need to be motivated so that they can do better in their academic pursuit. In motivating students, there is need to use both intrinsic and extrinsic ways of motivation. Both ways of motivation are necessary and none of them is indispensable.

However, parents and every family member should be involved in motivation of students. Each family member has a role to play in the motivation of the member, who is a student.

Accordingly, teachers and principals have a big responsibility in motivating students. Therefore, in their approach to teaching-learning environment, teachers should use skills and methods of teaching that will help to motivate students. They should realize that students vary in their rate of assimilation. Hence, the need to adopt different techniques in teaching-learning situation. Finally, motivation of students will play great role in minimizing examination malpractices and go a long way in seeing to the realization of educational goal among Economics students.


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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is My personal number; +2347068634102

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