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1.1          Background to the study

1.2          Statement of the problem

1.3          Purpose of the study

1.4          Significance of the study

1.5          Research Questions

1.6          Research Hypotheses

1.7          Delimitation of the study

1.8          Operational Definition of Terms




CHAPTER THREE                –              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1          Research Area

3.2          Research Design

3.3          Population of the study

3.4          Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5          Research Instrument

3.6          Validation of the Instrument

3.7          Administration of the Instrument

3.8          Method of Data Analysis


4.1          Presentation of Result

4.2          Discussion of Findings


5.1          Summary

5.2          Recommendations

5.3          Conclusion

5.4          Suggestion for further studies





The study investigated Societal Influence and Students’ Participation in Secondary School Sports. A sample size of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents was used for the study using simple random sampling technique. The “Questionnaire on Societal Influence and Students’ Participation in Secondary School Sport (QSISPSSS)” was adopted as instrument for collecting data.

The method for data analysis was a chi-square statistical technique. Findings revealed that peers have a positive influence on students’ participation and that parents also have a positive influence to the participation of students in Sport in secondary schools in the study area.




1.1          Background to the study 

Education is a factory where human beings are refined and sent into the labour market. John Locke (1982) in Lazarus (2014) opined that an individual is not born blank; rather, he is born raw. This implies that the child is born with certain potentialities that are hidden and they need education to expose these hidden potentialities. The society undoubtedly remains the common yardstick as well as a determining factors or a pivotal measure through which the performance of a student is ascertained.

The environment in which a child lives or where learning institution is cited definitely has a consequence on the general pattern of his growth and development of the child (Akaeze, 2014). According to a statisticians (Ariyo, 2014), Vincent, 2016). There is a high correlation between the environment and the number of students in schools. As well as the level of participation of students in school activities including sport activities.

Education theorists actually agree that nature and nurture are complementary for any meaningful educational development of the child. According to a front line guidance counselor (Akaeze, 2014), those children whose parents are brilliant and naturally endowed intellectually and are exposed to good food do well in their studies in schools and also like to participate in sport activities. The author further postulated that, the society in which a child lives or where learning environments is cited definitely has a consequence on the general pattern of his growth and mortal development.

However, sports are biological physcomotor activities which enable an individual to develop and control his physique. Nevertheless, the traditional view of sport participation is that it has a beneficial effect on the social and moral development of children and young people. Sport may have the tendency if well organized to change the entire human personal through active and passive participation. Such components of personality that sports are capable of transforming could be physical, social, moral, mental and emotional (Agbomi, 2012).


Moreover, regular sport participation plays an important role in promoting students well being. Sports participation develops students physically, socially and psychologically (Kubayi, Toriola & Monyeki, 2013) and helps them to cope with stress as well as improve their academic performance and school attendance.

However, previous researcher  Sallies & Owen (2019) have demonstrated that societal factors that influence sport participation of secondary school students are media, families (parents/siblings) peers, physical education teachers and community members. According to Middleton and Longhead (2011), students are less influence by peers when they have close and involving relationships with their parents.



The authors further contended that the ability of peers to influence the behaviors and attitude of adolescents is magnified when the adolescent hold negative perception about their parental relationship. Edim, Emeribe & Akah (2018), expressed that it is not an overstatement to remark that of all school subjects put together, sport alone can take a very prominent position in the educational system.

Sport properly harnessed, can contribute to the educational goals and objectives of the society. According to anthropological and historical researchers, physical education and sport are the most ancient subjects in humanities. From early to the present line, sports in one form or the other has been promoted by all fields of world civilization, it has received varying degree of cultural and government emphasis and attention (Oyeniyi, 2011).

According to Edim (2018), sport especially the games of football, volleyball, Lawn tennis, basketball. Hence, have all had a worldwide recognition, the aforementioned sport are such that every member of the society will want his/her member, whether family, friends, community to be an active participant in the sport.


Secondary school sport is a sporting activity that involves secondary school students. This sport is always even as a medium of scouting for raw and emerging talent in different sporting competition. Bassey (2010) asserted that secondary school is a ground for raw talent. Where the students who excelled in different sporting activities are groomed for future local, national and international competition. It is on this background that the researcher investigated into societal influence and students’ participation in secondary school sports in Obot Akara Local Government Area.


1.2          Statement of the Problem

Sport participation is an important part of motivation, a period during which participants develop character and learn to handle stress and difficult situations in life. Also, sport participation enables one to acquire discipline while meeting challenges or facing other individuals physically, mentally, socially and emotionally (Wang, 2011). Furthermore, sport participation cannot be void of influence. So many things tends to influence participation in sport by one secondary school students. The influence could come from parents, peers, the teachers and the community as a whole.


The poor result in physical and Health Education among Nigerian students. Their inability to understand most of the concepts of the subject. Poor perception of discipline among the stakeholders, unavailability and poor usage of sporting facilities. As well as performance of our athletes at Olympic and common wealth games activities has become a source of working to successive government and major stakeholders in the education and sporting sector in the country.


There has been poor infrastructure and poor utilization of sporting facilities. Their ugly trend may have instigated the current worry among state holders to factors responsible for poor participation of students in sport. This therefore motivated the researcher. To investigate the societal influence such as peer group and school location as they affect students’ participation in sport.


1.3          Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study was to investigate societal influences on students’ participation in secondary school sports:

(i)            Investigate peer influence and students’ participation in secondary school sports.

(ii)           Examine parental influence and students’ participation in secondary school sports.


1.4          Significance of the Study

The study will be significant in the following ways

(i)           Firstly, it will enable the government, non-governmental organizations and major stakeholders to understanding the decay in students’ participation in sport in secondary schools.

(ii)              It will also enable teachers and students to understand the place of effective participation in sport in boosting academic performance.


(iii)         Furthermore, it will enable educational administrators to strategize in their quest for qualitative Physical and Health Education. Also, to organize seminars/workshops to show the relationship between students’ participation in sports and performance.

(iv)          Also, the knowledge of the influence of societal influence will encourages the students themselves to relate positively and discriminate the peers they keep in other for them to participate in sports.

(v)        Moreover,  it will be of immense benefit to the school counselors to be able to counsel, guide and teach students. Thus, on how to adjust and maintain a healthy and active environment for learning which will enhance good participation and develop their interest in learning the subject.

(vi)       Lastly, it will serve as base-data for future researchers in the field of Physical and Health Education and related discipline.


1.5          Research Questions

  1. To what extent does peer influence affect students’ participation in secondary school sports.
  2. To what extent does parental influence affect students’ participation in secondary school sports.


1.6          Limitation of the study

Lack of adequate funding and poor rural roads networks limited the extent of this research work as well as lack of sufficient time due to other academic work of the researcher.


1.7          Definition of Terms

Society: This is an organized group or environment such as peer group influence and school location as they affect the students in the teaching learning process.

Sport: Refers to physical activities that involve physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team compete against one another or others for entertainment.

Participation: The act of students taking part in secondary school’s sports or an event.

Society: A group of people, environment which could have an effect on a particular thing either positive or negative.

Parent: This is made-up of father and mother or guardian. Physical education teacher: an individual or a group of individuals who gives instruction in class and in the field about sporting activities.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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