Research Proposals



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Title Page


Approval Page



Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices




1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions


1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms



2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review


CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5       Instrumentation


3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2           Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Method of Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis



4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings



5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study






1.1       Background to the Study

Nigerian society is a highly dynamic one. The dynamism gives rise to new issues of public interest. It also generates new problems and poses daunting challenges for which the society and its people cannot overlook. If there is any issue that is most pressing in the minds of people as far as education is concerned, it is that pertaining to the quality or standard of education (Durkhiem, 2023). Critics point out that policy makers and planners are more concerned with the number of educated graduating rather than with quality of graduates.


Qualitative education should therefore lead to detectable gains in knowledge, skills and values. There are, however, several students’ vices that seem to be militating against realization of the desired qualitative education in Nigeria educational system. Some of the common ones (anti social behaviours) include cultism, gangsterism, trance, child abuse, hooliganism, pocket picking, gambling, raping , drug/alcohol abuse, examination malpractices, absenteeism from school among others.



Social vices are disruptive acts characterized by covert and overt hostility and intentional aggression towards others. Moreover, social vices exist along a continuum and include a repeated violation of social rules, defiance of authority and of the rights of others, deceitfulness, theft and reckless disregard for self and others (Dyness and Ishino, 2022).


Specifically, social vices develop and are shaped in the context of coercive social interactions within the family, community and educational environment. It is also influenced by the child’s temperament and irritability, cognitive ability, the level of involvement with deviant peers, exposure to violence and deficit of cooperative problem solving skills. Behavioural disorders include stealing, violence, drug abuse, examination malpractice, sexual abuse and truancy (Dupuy, 2011).

Mental health professionals agree that rising rates of serious school disciplinary problems, delinquency and violent crimes indicate that, anti social vices in general is increasing (Pereira, 2016). A greater proportion of them suffer from the social, academic and occupational failures resulting from their anti social vices.


Farrington (2015) points out the following as indicators of social vices in childhood and adolescents: behavioural disorder, impulsiveness, stealing, vandalism, resisting authority, physical and psychological aggression, bullying, running away from home, school absenteeism, cruelty towards animals, etc.


Moreover, as for adulthood, Farrington points to illegal or criminal behaviours, drug and alcohol abuse, marital breakdown, gender violence etc. Evidence from previous studies by scholars reveals probability of social vices being interrelated, retained or progressive.

Specifically, peer pressure is the major cause of youth involvement in social vices. Students spend more time with their friends in school or at home. Due to their weak nature and tender age, they can easily be influenced. Children have a high level of curiosity to learn, to have fun and practice new things thus making them smoke, drink, have sexual intercourse (read about sexually transmitted disease here) and so on.


A proverb that says “show me your friends, and I will tell you who you are” shows the significance of friends and how they influence lives. Peer pressure is a major cause of vices in the society (Fazli, Shamsi and Heidari, 2015).

Another cause of social vices is negligence by the parents or a broken home. Most children that engage themselves in vices are from broken homes. Lack of parental care, supervision and attention can make a child engage in social vices.

Children from the permissive and uninvolved parenting styles fall mostly into these traps. They move with wrong people, their movements are not queried; their academic progress is not being followed up. Freedom to do anything without been probe affect children negatively.


Negligence of parents can make the wards turn to their friends for love, emotions, care, advice who can lure them into deadly acts. An abandoned girl can look up to an opposite sex for love and affection. Some maids, house helps, family members who are always around children in the absence of parents can introduce these vices to them. Some may even violate the children sexually, warn and threatened them not to tell anyone.

Even if the bold ones are determined to confide in their parents, they may be too busy or occupied to listen and see through things. Many parents have spoilt the lives of their children without them knowing (Farrington, 2015).

Social vices affect the society as a whole and the individual in particular. Delawar, Rezayi and Alizadeh (2010) posit that mental, physical, academic, moral aspects of an individual are negatively affected. Students divert their time to these vices instead of being serious with academic works. There is wastage of time which leads to poor academic performance.


Greater attention is given to the cult to the detriment of academics. Much demand is expected from members. The cult is their priority while any other things including their studies are secondary. They forget their primary assignment in school by focusing on meeting the needs of other members, fighting, and initiation of innocent students.

Being in a secret cult expose a child to other forms of illegal acts such as smoking, alcoholism, rape, taking of illegal substances, hooliganism, thuggery, and others. They may lose their lives in fights or when there is a clash with an opposing cult(s) and some may be rusticated from schools. They might even progress to higher crimes such as highway and bank robbery (Nna, 2012).

Education is a universally accepted facilitator of change and a meaningful dynamic process for social, academic and economic development.


According to National Policies of Nigerian Education (2008) which states that, not only is education the greatest force used to bring about redress, it is also a great instrument of its economic, social, political and human resources, Hence, the attempt to investigate the influence of  social vices on students’ academic performance and attitude become very necessary.

Recently the dramatic increase in the prevalence of problematic vices during adolescence has broken the traditional view that academic success is the only standard in assessing good students. In Nigeria, not only students’ school performance, but also their behaviour has been given considerable public attention.


Hence, high academic performance and behavioural competence are regarded as two important indicators for determining the overall well being of students. Thus, the focus of this present study is on the investigation of the relationship between Social vices, Attitude and Academic performance of Biology students in secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.


1.2       Statement of the Problem

The problems of social vices have become a menace in Nigerian society in which the consequence is poor up bringing or poor child training among others. Also this research enables us to realize the ways of improving the academic performance of student as an avenue to reduce the rate of social vices within our community. Due to the rapid development, behavioural problem have become a menace among students and is even affecting their performances and behaviour in class.


Despite the worldwide concern and education about the dangers of drug abuse and other related vices, most of the students have limited knowledge of how dangerous the habit is. Social vices attitude and academic performance of biology students in secondary schools.

Many students have dropped out of school and others opted to engage in criminal activities thus endangering the lives of the people living in their surroundings. The young generation no longer has role models since most of the young adults are unemployed resorted to  anti social behaviour. These have contributed immensely to their poor performance in of students in Biology as a result of lack of focus, discipline, parental advice and care as well as Godly role models.


Despite the government’s concern and heightened campaigns against the vices among secondary school students, there exists a parallel accelerated rate of students who engage in the use of illicit drug, truancy, thieves and prostitution. This has been a green field of research that has greatly prompted the choice of this study.


  1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate social vices, attitude and academic performance of biology students in secondary schools. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to investigate:

  1. The relationship between social vices and Biology students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
  2. The relationship between social vices and Biology students’ attitude in secondary schools.


1.4       Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What is the relationship between social vices and Biology students’ academic performance in secondary schools?
  2. What is the relationship between social vices and Biology students’ attitude in secondary schools?


1.5       Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

  1. There is no significant relationship between social vices and Biology students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
  2. There is no significant relationship between social vices and Biology students’ attitude in secondary schools.


1.6       Significance of the Study

Nigeria is faced with a plethora of problem today and the issue of students’ unruly engagement in social vices cannot be edged out. The educational system most especially the secondary schools has become a breeding ground for students who exhibit delinquent behaviours; hence it has become problematic for teachers to effectively impact knowledge.

As a result of these social vices, Biology students are faced with a low level of literacy. Furthermore, this study upholds the negative influence of social vices on the academic performance of students and it aims to foster a society that breeds students free from social vices. Social vices attitude and academic performance of biology students in secondary schools.


Also, the result of this study will constitute an enriching boost to already existing literatures on the issue of social vices, the causes and its effects on the academic performances and attitudes of students.

The finding will help parents, school management, school counsellors and teachers to know the causes, effects and solution toward improving the performance of wards when involves in social vices or related issues affecting students grade in school.

In addition, the finding of this study will help in giving more weight into the pattern of social vices among students and their academic performance. It will also contribute immensely to the Government to understand the circumstances surrounding the secondary school students’ social vices, in order to enable the society to know the exact area to focus attention upon in its fight against crime in the society.


1.7       Scope of the Study

This research is delimited to social vices and academic performance and behaviour of Biology students in Onna L.GA. It is also delimited to SS2 students in Onna L.G.A where there are nine secondary schools, but due to fund and the present economic predicament in Nigeria, four schools out of ten are carefully chosen.


1.8       Definition of Terms

Social vices: In brief, are bad traits, unhealthy and negative behaviours that are against the morality of a society and frowned by members of the society.

Academic Performance: is a measure of how well students have performed in the various assessment items set for them base on some educational criteria determined by professional educators.

Attitude: In brief, is a set of emotions, beliefs and behaviour towards a particular object, person, thing or event.

Biology: is the study of life.



Social vices are on the increase in our institutions of learning and especially in Nigerian secondary schools. This made many students to involve in many social vices such as examination malpractice, drug abuse and truancy among others.

Although many students in secondary schools generally have a favourable attitude towards the learning of Biology; positive attitudes alone may not significantly predict good performance.  These vices will ultimately lead to loss of value of an individual intellectual ability as this will influence students’ academic performance in Biology. Social vices attitude and academic performance of biology students in secondary schools.


As such, Biology students should develop positive attitude towards learning and shun involving in social vices for better academic achievement in secondary schools. Based on the specific objectives of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. There is a significant relationship between social vices and Biology students’ academic performance.
  2. There is a significant relationship between social vices and Biology students’ attitude in secondary schools.


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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is My personal number; +2347068634102

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