Project

SELF CONCEPT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

SELF CONCEPT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Research Questions

 

1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6     Significance of the study

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

1.8     Limitation of the Study

1.9     Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODS

3.1     Research Design

3.2     Area for the study

3.3    Population for the study

3.4     Sampling and Sampling Technique

3.5     Instrumentation

3.6     Instrument Validation

 

3.7     Administration of Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1     Data Presentation and Analysis

4.2     Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

5.4     Suggestions for further study

References

Appendix

 

Abstract

The main purpose of this study aimed to examine self concept and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. Research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. This study employed correlation survey design. The population of the study was made up of all the thirteen thousand, one hundred and ninety eight (13, 198) (5, 871 males and 7327 females) senior secondary schools (SSI-SS3) students offering Biology in all the public secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. The sample for the study consisted of 725 students for the 2021/2022 academic session. Which was made up of 354 males and 371 females. Multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted for selection. The instrument used to collect data was Biology Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire (BASCQ).

However, Pearson Moment Correlation coefficient was used to analyze the data related to the research questions by finding the relationship between the variables. Also, in testing the null hypotheses, t-test of correlational analysis was used to ascertain the significant relationship between the two variables of interest at 0.05 alpha level.

Thus, the findings of the study revealed that there is a weak positive relationship existed between secondary school students’ self-concept and their academic performance in Biology. Therefore, it was concluded that a low positive relationship existed between secondary school students’ academic self-concept and their academic performance. Furthermore, recommendations were made among others that, the students should be encouraged in their self-concept through guidance and counselling orientation.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Self-concept, which is an individual’s perception of self, is an important concept of any child’s development. As children begin to develop a sense of self, interact and gain experience in the world, their self-concept is affected. Moreover, according to  Ahmavaara & Houston(2007) as cited in Anyanwu, & Alafiatayo (2019) noted that the importance of self- concept within educational settings has been discussed by several scholars and has led to the performance of studies examining the role of self-concept in school performance.

Furthermore, self-concept refers to an individual’s perception of themselves, encompassing their beliefs, feelings, and evaluations about their own abilities and attributes in a particular domain—in this case, biology.

 

SELF CONCEPT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Moreover, factors such as self-efficacy, confidence, motivation, and interest in biology can significantly impact a student’s self-concept. Undeniably, a positive self-concept may lead to higher motivation, increased effort, and better academic outcomes in biology studies. Conversely, a negative self-concept might result in reduced motivation, lower confidence, and potentially poorer academic performance.

Self-concept pertains to an individual’s perception of their own abilities, competencies, and attributes within a specific domain, such as biology in the case of this study (Marsh, 1990).

Research has shown that a student’s self-concept in a particular subject significantly influences their academic performance (Honicke & Broadbent, 2016). In the context of biology education at the secondary school level, understanding how a student’s perception of their own biological knowledge, skills, and capabilities affects their performance in the subject is of paramount importance. Self concept and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools.

 

Balarabe and Bakari (2013) noted that academic self-concept is multi-faceted, hierarchical, organized and structured, descriptive and evaluative, stable, and yet increasingly situation specific. Students‟ academic self-concept may determine how well they perform in subjects such as Biology in line with their capabilities. This could be so because each student’s academic self-concept gives him an opportunity to view himself in a unique way which probably differs from how others may perceive him.

Several factors contribute to shaping a student’s self-concept in biology. These factors encompass personal beliefs, prior experiences, feedback from educators, and the learning environment (Eccles, 2009). Positive self-concept, characterized by confidence, motivation, and a sense of competence in biology, tends to correlate with better academic performance (Cakici & Bagceci, 2020).

Conversely, a negative self-concept may lead to decreased motivation, lower effort, and potentially poorer academic outcomes in biology studies. Indeed, scholars have drawn upon diverse theoretical frameworks to understand the intricate interplay between self-concept and academic achievement. Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) offers insights into how self-efficacy, a component of self-concept, influences individuals’ choices, efforts, and perseverance in academic pursuits. Additionally, self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) emphasizes the significance of intrinsic motivation and autonomy in fostering positive self-concept and better academic outcomes. Self concept and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools.

Recent studies (Marsh, 2018; Wigfield & Eccles, 2020) have highlighted the multifaceted nature of factors influencing self-concept in biology among secondary school students. These factors encompass not only academic experiences and achievement but also social comparisons, feedback from peers and teachers, cultural influences, and perceptions of the relevance and utility of biology in real-world contexts. Therefore, the integration of technology in education has introduced new dimensions to students’ experiences in biology.

 

In fact, current research (Looi, 2021; Ozdamli & Uzunboylu, 2019) explores how digital tools, simulations, and online resources impact students’ self-concept and engagement with biological concepts, potentially affecting their academic performance.

Effective interventions and educational strategies play a pivotal role in shaping students’ self-concept and subsequent academic achievements. Studies (Kaplan & Maehr, 2007; Yilmaz & Deniz, 2022) examining the effectiveness of interventions such as goal setting, teacher feedback, mentoring programs, and inclusive classroom practices shed light on their impact on students’ self-concept and biology performance.

Lastly, expanding the background by integrating these aspects and weaving in current research would contribute substantially to a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between self-concept and academic performance in biology among secondary school students. Therefore, this study aimed to examine self concept and academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Often times, the teacher is blamed for the poor academic performance, and even when the child is blamed, explanation is proffered only in terms of the child’s cognitive or intellectual ability. However, little or no attention is paid to the child’s self-concept of himself and the subject, and the study habits/skills the child employs in studying, which could influence his performance in the subject.

Without reservation, a better performance is needed in such a subject like Biology. Many variables have been faulted and research works conducted to reduce the ugly situation due to the importance of Biology and its place in secondary school curriculum but the improved performance was not achieved. It has been observed instances where students who demonstrate high confidence or positive self-perceptions in biology do not consistently achieve correspondingly high academic grades. Thus, this discrepancy between perceived competence and actual performance could be a motivating factor. Self concept and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools.

Moreover, it’s possible that students with low self-concept in biology might exhibit lower motivation and reduced effort in their studies. Thus, leading to under-performance or a lack of interest in the subject. Furthermore, it has been observed that the influence of external factors, such as societal stereotypes, peer comparisons, or teaching methods, impacting students’ self-concept in biology, potentially affecting their academic performance. Therefore, these observed problems prompted the researcher to delve deeper into examining self concept and academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.

 

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that a low positive relationship existed between secondary school students’ academic self-concept and their academic performance. In addition, it was concluded that while no significant relationship existed between male students’ academic self-concept and their academic achievement in Biology, significant relationship was found between female male students’ academic self-concept and their academic achievement in Biology.

 

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