Research Proposals

SCHOOL VARIABLES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY

SCHOOL VARIABLES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgements

 

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE:     INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

 

1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO:    REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

 

3.5       Instrumentation

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2           Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study

References

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

A school is a social and learning agent that provides the environment upon which a child may be educated in order to obtain educational goals. Human beings, have unlimited capacity to learn, but may however be limited by the behaviour patterns and facilities that the immediate environment offers. It also ensures among other that students are effectively equipped for the posing challenges of the present era of science and technology (National Policy on Education, 2014).

To attain the aforementioned goal, the school variables such as: school facilities, class size, school location, teacher-student ratio etc school be considered. Since there are numerous school variables, this work is limited to school facilities and class size.

 

SCHOOL VARIABLES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY

According to (Udo, 2021), an effective school facility is responsive to the changing programs of educational delivery, and at a minimum should provide a physical environment that is comfortable, safe, secured, accessible, well illuminated, well ventilated, and aesthetically pleasing. The school facility consists of not only the physical structure and the variety of building systems, such as mechanical, plumbing, electrical and power-telecommunications, security, and fire suppression system.

The facility also includes furnishings, materials and supplies equipment and information technology, as well as various aspects of the building grounds, namely athletic, field, playgrounds, areas for outdoor learning and vehicular access and parking. School variables and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools.

 

The school facilities are much more than a passive container of the educational process. It is rather an integral component of the conditions of learning. Therefore, the layout and design of a facility contributes to the place experience of students, educators, and community members, depending on the quality of its design and management, the facility can contribute to a sense of students (Udo, 2021).

Furthermore, the relationship between class size and academic performance has been a perplexing one for educators. Also, studies have found that the physical environment, class overcrowding and teaching methods are  all variables that affect students’ performance (Motnar, 2020) as cited by Moffat (2014).

 

In addition, large class size and over populated schools have direct impact on the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have been reported to lead to mass failure and make students to lost interest in school (Udo, 2021).

Hence, to achieve a qualitative and improved academic performance of students in Biology, school variables must be thoroughly considered. Therefore, this work seeks to examine school variables and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Academic performance which is measured by the examination results is one of the major goals of any school. It has observed that schools have established skills for those who go through them and behind all this is the idea of enhancing good academic performance. Several reasons have been given such as: school facilities, school type, class size, school location etc. School variables and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools.

Many people feel that with so many students now enrolled in the public secondary school, the qualitative education advocated for in National Policy on Education (2014) may be difficult to achieve because the larger the class, the more difficult it becomes to control and consequently, a poor overall output. Moreover, some parents prefer that their children should remain in urban schools for their secondary school for better academic performance.

Therefore, this study is an attempt to examine school variables and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools.

 

1.2  Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine school variables and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Compare the academic performance of Biology students from schools with adequate facilities and schools without adequate facilities.
  2. Determine whether small and large class size influence academic performance of students in Biology.

 

1.4    Significance of the Study

This study has a valid significance most importantly, it will help the government by providing knowledge about the environment that will encourage students’ good academic performance. School variables and students academic performance in biology in secondary schools.

Also, it will inform the government and educators to provide necessary facilities needed in school for the promotion of better academic performance. Finally, it will serve as reference point to other researchers who may have interest in writing a research of this kind.

 

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of Biology students from school with adequate facilities and school without adequate facilities.
  2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of Biology students from small and large class size.

 

Operational Definition of terms

The following are defined as they are applied in the study:

School Variables: In brief, these are tools used in the smooth running of academics activities which change at different time interval

Class Size: This is a statistical measure of the number of students taught in class during a single selected period of a particular school day.

School Facilities: In brief, this refers to those facilities in school which should be available and suitable for learning.

Academic Performance: This refers to the scoring or exhibited ability of students in school test, examination and other related activities in the school.

 

Conclusion

Based on the study, it is observed that school variables have a significant influence in teaching and learning of Biology and the academic performance of student. However, based on the findings of study, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. There is a significant difference in the academic performance of students in Biology from school with adequate facilities and school without adequate facilities.
  2. There is a significant difference in the academic performance of student in small and large class size.

 

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Ikemesit

Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with projectboss.com.ng. I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research. ikemesitetukapan20233@gmail.com

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