Research Proposals

SCHOOL VARIABLES AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

SCHOOL VARIABLES AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

 

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypotheses

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

1.8     Limitation of the Study

1.9     Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE –        RESEARCH METHODS

3.1     Area of Study

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Population of the Study

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection

 

3.6     Validation of the Instrument

3.7     Administration of the Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE- SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Suggestions for further Study

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

Undeniably, no two schools are alike. Schools, just like the people within them, have different characteristics. In fact, the types of school differences explored were areas in which a head-teacher may have some policy control, and where policy differences may have an effect on pupil’s learning and academic outcome.

Moreover, Hedges and Hedberg (2023) stressed that the issue of pupils’ learning in school has posed a lot of concern to public, parents and the pupils. Most parents take pains in search of school environment that is favourable for their wards to obtain their primary school education.

 

Lawson (2021) elucidated that certain factors such as school variables are responsible for effective learning and academic achievement of pupils in schools. However, these factors could result from the school environment the pupils employ and used for learning. In any educational setting, school variables and facilities available are very important determinant of the child learning and intellectual development. Indeed, it is much reliable variance to pupils’ interest and academic performance in schools.

 

SCHOOL VARIABLES AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, pupils and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon-dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning of Social Studies difficult.

Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among pupils as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absenteeism rate (Frazier, 2012). Therefore, these factors can adversely affect pupils’ learning and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning altitude among pupils which affect their academic performance in Social Studies.

 

Furthermore, according to Wiseman (2020), there is abundance evidence of various aspects of the school characteristics in which education is experienced and which have important influence in the pupils’ achievement in school.

A school as a learning environment includes everything inside and outside the space which a child occupies and which in any way affects his behaviour, interest and performance during a particular learning routine.

 

In addition, Lawson (2021) outlines some factors that determine school variables to include school environment, classroom block, library, heat, ventilation, light, quietness, seating comfort, accessibility to facilities/instructional materials and supplies, building and others in the surrounding of the school. These factors are important since they may or may not increase child’s interest in learning as well as their academic performance in Social Studies.

However, when the school environment is harsh and not encouraging, the pupils become frustrated. Thus, by this, the learning of any subject become boring and much time is wasted to enable the pupils follow the learning. Therefore, it is based on these that this research is conducted to ascertain how school variables affect the learning of Social Studies in primary schools.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Indeed, effective teaching and pupils’ interest in learning of Social Studies as a subject depends to a large extent on the availability of instructional facilities in school and ability of the teacher to adequately deliver the instruction to the pupils. In Nigeria, some school environments are dotted with dilapidated building, equipped with outdated facilities and teachers at times work under unsafe condition. It is not unusual to find teachers and pupils interacting academically under collapsed school building. School variables and learning of social studies in primary schools.

Likewise pupils are sometimes left with no option but to receive lessons under poor ventilated classroom; poor lighting and sound system, large class size, because of lack of structure (building) and teachers are poorly motivated resulting to decline number of teacher in the school environment.

 

However, the issue of effective learning of pupils in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even pupils themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school (Ajao, 2021).

The effective learning of Social Studies may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classroom, libraries, and other school facilities are structurally defective. Therefore, it is based on these factors that this research is conducted to determine how school variables affect the learning of Social Studies in primary schools.

 

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine school variables and learning of social studies in primary schools. Specifically, the objectives of the study are:

  1. To find out effect of school library facilities on learning of Social Studies in primary schools.
  2. To examine the effect of instructional materials in the learning of Social Studies in primary schools.
  3. To investigate the effect of class-size in the learning of Social Studies in primary schools.

 

1.4    Significance of the Study

The result of this study will help the government, by providing knowledge about the school environment that will encourage pupils’ effective learning. The findings from this study will aid parents to choose a better school environment for their worlds in both rural and urban areas as this will aid to increase effective and adequate learning among their wards as well as academic achievement in many school subjects including Social Studies. School variables and learning of social studies in primary schools.

The findings from the study would also help curriculum planners to plan Social Studies curriculum that will help learners to function well in the society after learning the contents. Admittedly, the study will provide data base for future researchers for further studies in the area of school variables and academic achievement.

 

1.5    Research Questions

The following research questions are formulated to guide the study:

  1. To what extent does school library facilities affect the learning of Social Studies in primary schools?
  2. How does instructional materials affect the learning of Social Studies in primary schools?
  3. To what extent does class-size affect the learning of Social Studies in primary schools?

 

1.6    Research Hypotheses

                   The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study:

  1. There is no significant difference between school library facilities and the learning of Social Studies in primary schools.
  2. There is no significant difference between instructional materials and the learning of Social Studies in primary schools.
  3. There is no significant difference between class size and the learning of Social Studies in primary schools.

 

1.7    Delimitation of the Study

This research work is restricted to the study of school variables and learning of Social Studies in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area. Among the variables that links to school variables; only library facilities, instructional materials and class size are variables considered in the study.

 

1.8    Limitation of the Study

Several problems were encountered while undertaking this research work. Some of these problems include:  

  1. The time given for the completion of this study was not enough for a wider and more in-depth study.
  2. Lack of funds to procure necessary materials for the study and high cost of transportation also hindered the study.
  3. The researcher also faced challenges like inability to reach out for enough print materials since it was carried out along side with other academic works.

 

1.9    Definition of Terms

School Variables: In brief, as used in this study refers to those facilities available in school for effective teaching and learning of any subject.

Class Size: This refers to the number of pupils being taught by individual teacher in a classroom.

Library Facilities: These are facilities available in school library for effective reading and learning within the school.

 

Conclusion

It is evident from all that have been discussed in this study that school variables has great influence on pupils learning of social studies  in primary schools. The advantage of school variables (characteristics) and perhaps facilities available in schools cannot be overemphasized in the teaching-learning processes as well as students’ academic attainment. It is equally pertinent to note that school library facilities and perhaps class size play a significant role in the choice of school for the learners.

Based on the specific objectives of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. There is a significant difference between school library facilities and the learning of Social Studies in primary schools.
  2. There is a significant difference between instructional materials and the learning of Social Studies in primary schools.
  3. There is a significant difference between class size and the learning of Social Studies in primary schools.

 

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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

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