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Title Page





Table of Contents


1.1            Background to the Study

1.2            Statement of the Problem

1.3            Objectives of the Study

1.4            Significance of the study


1.5            Research Hypotheses

1.6            Limitation of the study

1.7            Delimitation of the study

1.8            Definition of Terms




3.1              Area of the Study

3.2              Research Design

3.3              Population of the Study

3.4              Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5              Instrumentation


3.6              Validation of the Instrument

3.7              Administration of the Instruments

3.8              Scoring of the Instruments

3.9              Method of Data Analysis



4.1             Data Analysis

4.2              Discussion of Findings



 5.1 Summary

5.2 Recommendations

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies






1.1  Background to the Study

The nation’s overall development is inextricably tied to its  educational system since education is a light that shows mankind the right direction to surge as well as an engine for the growth and progress of any society. It not only imparts knowledge, skills and inculcates but is also responsible for building human capital which breeds, drives and sets technological innovation and economic growth (Osakinle, 2023).

Moreover, education in its broadest meaning is any process by which an individual gains knowledge and insight or develops attitudes and skills. It is an experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual and in its technical sense, these experiences possibly can be transferred from one generation to another.

Furthermore, according to Ugwuanyi, (2013), education is the process by which a society is established to assist the young to learn and understand the heritage of the past, participate productively in the society and contribute meaningfully for the development of the society.


Emeka (2012) citing Kneller (2020) sees education as a process by which any society through schools, colleges, universities and other institutions deliberately transmits knowledge, values and skills from one person to another.

As a result of deregulation in Nigerian education, the system of education has two main interest groups (Sadler, 2020). Thus, students are individuals who accumulate knowledge with the help of the teachers in motivating and encouraging school environment.



In an educational system, the teacher is the enabler and motivator; hence, the teaching effectiveness of teachers is a characteristic component of teacher personality after their attitude which is the framework that affects how a person thinks and acts about the world. The teachers’ attitudes towards education influence their performance as educators positively or negatively. The quality of teaching is a function of the love, dedication and devotion of the teacher towards the subject and learners. The quality of any teaching programme cannot rise above the quality of its teachers (Bhalla et al, 2018).


Many factors can encourage or inhibit effective teaching, one is attitude, and parental involvement in an attitude towards education can have a large impact on teaching as well learning process (Joshua, 2013). However, education scholar (Garcia, 2019) believed that a teacher’s attitude has the largest impact on a student’s success in school.

Behjajooh (2022), maintains that girls described situations in which the personality traits of their teachers were more powerful  and influential than course content or instructional strategies with respect to the opinions of their experiences. If a teacher appears not to like or care about a particular subject or learner, then, such a teacher will be unable to foster a supportive learning environment. The school variables and effective teaching of biology in secondary schools.

In addition, a teacher with a negative attitude may not be as approachable as teachers with positive attitudes. It is true that there are teachers whose attitudes are positive towards the promotion of good teaching and vice versa.

The quest to improve the attitudes of teachers for effective teaching has been an age long enterprise which necessitated the application of quality system management standards in the educational sector. Unlike being a great scholar, being a great teacher requires a passion for one’s field of study and for the students.


Okeke (2011) intimates that space has the power to organize and promote pleasant relationships between people of different ages. Thus, to provide changes; to promote choices and activities and for its potential for sparking different types of social and effective learning.

Location according to Bassey (2020) is either rural or urban; he further explained that schools in the rural areas are short of quality teachers since many choose to go to urban schools than rural schools. Since the effects of school variables as mentioned above  on effective teaching of Biology in secondary schools cannot be over-emphasized. It is with this view that the researcher has thought it wise that there is need to introduce quality into the system by creating sound and conducive environment for teaching and learning process.


1.2 Statement of the Problem
        One of the hindrances (problems) confronting Nigeria’s educational system is the inability of the teachers to teach effectively for the better understanding of the learners. Since schools are established with the aim of imparting knowledge and skills to those who go through them and behind all these is the idea of enhancing good academic performance, therefore, its variables should be greatly considered. The school variables and effective teaching of biology in secondary schools.

However, various factors that help in shaping the effectiveness of teaching by the teacher in Biology are outlined here to include: attitude of teachers, school location and school ownership. Thus, this study sought to add existing knowledge by investigating how these factors contribute to influence the effectiveness of the concerned teachers.

The study of Biology is faced with serious drift during the process of teaching and learning situation. In fact, the phenomena of school variables have adversely affected the teachers in an unprecedented dimension and their effectiveness in teaching the students thereby leading to poor learning, lack of seriousness mostly among the students, inadequate instructional materials, lack of conducive learning atmosphere and teachers’ attitude to teaching resulting in poor academic performance of students in Biology.


1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study were to investigate school variables and teachers’ effectiveness in the teaching of Biology  among secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.   Specifically, the study sought to determine:
1. effects of school location on the teaching of Biology in secondary schools.
2. effects of school ownership (private and public) on the teaching of Biology.


1.4 Significance of the Study

  • Firstly, the study will enlighten teachers and school administrators on those motivational characteristics that affect teaching and learning process.
  • It is beneficial to educators in determining proper environment to site schools for learning of Biology and will also provide information about the effect of other school variable mentioned for effective teaching and students’ performance in the study of Biology. The school variables and effective teaching of biology in secondary schools.


  • It also provides information about the effect of good and conducive environment for parents choice of schools for their children who are interested in the educational performances of their children especially in Biology and education for those who are intending to mould their children to become biology educators and also enable government plan for the overall development of the school system. The school variables and effective teaching of biology in secondary schools.
  • Finally, it will serve as a reference material for further researches on school variables in relation to teaching effectiveness and students’ academic performance not only in Biology but in other school subjects.


1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were postulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the level of teaching of Biology between schools located in urban areas and those in rural areas.
  2. There is no significant difference in the level of teaching Biology between public schools and private schools.


Definition of Terms
School Variables: This refers to the school’s physical surrounding which includes the classrooms, school management, teaching methods and attitudes, peers, buildings, school types, ownership and school location.
Teaching: In brief, the act of giving information about a particular subject to a class or student.
Effective: To produce an intended result.
Teacher: A person who teaches in a school.
In brief, a way of thinking or feeling about someone or something.
School: An institution for educating students.



On the basis of the findings of the study, it has become obvious that;

  1. School location significantly influences the effective teaching of Biology teachers as there is significant difference in the level of teaching between teachers in urban areas and those in rural areas.
  2. School ownership significantly influences the effective teaching of Biology teachers in secondary schools since teachers in private schools have shown significant higher level of effectiveness above their counterparts in public schools.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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