SCHOOL RESOURCES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

SCHOOL RESOURCES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
SCHOOL RESOURCES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

SCHOOL RESOURCES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to examine school resources and academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population of the study consisted of all the public secondary schools in Oruk Anam.

The study targeted all SS2 Government students in all the eight (8) public secondary schools with the total number of 2001 students offering Government. Simple random sampling technique was used in this study, because it allowed each member of the target to have an equal and independent chance of being included in the study. 200 students from SS2 was sampled out from the population of 2001 SS2 students who offered Government in five (5) Public secondary schools in Oruk Anam were randomly selected for the study.

The instrument for data collected was Schools Resources and Academic Performance of Students in Government questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using independent t-test. The findings of the study revealed that school resources such as personnel, instructional materials and school library influences the teaching and learning of Government in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

School resources refer to school related factors that influence the influence of achievement of educational objectives. According to Nsa, Offiong, Udo and Ikot (2023), school resources are both human and material resources with school system that affect teaching and learning. Such variables include the teacher, learners, and school facilities such as library, laboratory and instructional aides.

 

Nsa, Offiong, Udo and Ikot (2023) define school resources to include learning or school environment and the availability of essential educational facilities and equipment. According to them, a stimulation school environment enables the teacher to teach a variety of activities with broad-base ideas about what the student are likely to learn or respond to. This makes possible for the teacher and the student to work collaboratively and productively towards attainment of educational goals.

Education is universally recognized as a form of investment in human capital for economic benefit of the countries. According to Adeyemi and Adu (2010), it is widely accepted that education is one of the leading instruments for promoting economic development as it encompasses individuals to go through, to help them develop and utilize their potentials.

 

SCHOOL RESOURCES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Also, Okeke (2017) points out that through education individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitude that are necessary for effective living. This is the reason all modern nations see investment in education of youth as most vital.

According to Onsomu E. N., Muthaka D. I. and Manda D.K (2016), secondary education is an important sub-sector of education in the preparation of human capital for development and provision of life opportunities as it provides a vital link between basic education and the world of work on one hand, and further training on the other.

Furthermore, the manifestations of quality education have to do with literary cognitive abilities performance and progression to higher levels of learning.

 

On the other hand, quality education cannot be achieved without educational resources as they play very important role in the achievement of educational goals and objectives. School resources are those things that enable the teacher to do his/her work very well and helping the learners to learn effectively. They are those facilities that are needed for effective teaching – learning process to take place.

 

Ibitoye (2017) defined school resources as those types of materials, human and financial variables that are put in place that enhance effective teaching and learning process in the school. It include buildings, classroom facilities equipments like laboratories, libraries, furniture, instructional materials, audiovisual aids, toilet, ICTs and other, necessary for effective and efficient operation in the school.

According to Adeogun and Ofisila (2018), school resources can be categorized into four groups namely, human, materials, physical and financial resources. Maicibi (2013) opined that all institutions or organizations are made up of human and non-human resources.

 

Human resources refer to teachers and support staff and non-human resources include laboratories, libraries and classrooms. He further asserts that when the right quantity and quality of human resources is brought together, it can manipulate other resources towards realizing institutional goals and objectives.

Also, Oyedeji (2013) also described human resources as the needed people, personnel that are needed within the organizational institution that will drive the vehicles of educational system to desired destination.

 

Consequently, Buckley, Schneider and Shang (2014), maintain that school resources enable the teacher to accomplish his/her task as well, and help the learner to learn and achieve effectively.

They emphasized that the availability and proper use of school facilities (resources) can affect the interest of the teacher to teach effectively, in turn, that it will positively affects student’s academic achievement. Hence, school resources play a significant role in improving the quality of education.

Moreover, Usman (2017) opined that educational resources are central to the educational process because they play an important role in the achievement of educational goals and objectives since they facilitate teacher’s work and accelerate learning on the part of the students.

 

According to Njoroge (2010), unavailability of educational resources hinders effective utilization. Availability of necessary physical facilities enhances quality of teaching and       learning and the academic performance of learners in all subjects. Therefore, proper utilization of available school resources brings about fruitful academic performance of student in all subjects.

However, Cohen, Raudenbush, and Ball (2013) stated that it is not making resources available to school that matters, but getting those resources utilized by teachers and learners (students) to get academic content learned. School resources if properly utilized enhance academic performance of students in schools; as such its role and importance cannot be over emphasized. Based on this reason, this study is set to investigate school resources and academic performance of students in government in senior secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

 

1.2  Statement of the Problem

The Nigeria’s educational system is dominated by examination oriented where by passing examination is the only benchmark for assessing  performance as there is no internal system of monitoring learning achievement within an educational cycle.

However, the phenomenon of poor performance of students in Government in both internal and external examinations in Nigeria has become a source of worry to successive government. This could be attributed to a number of factors to include the under – utilization of school resources in the school.

Moreover, findings by researchers and leading educators showed that for better performance in Government several factors should be considered such as qualification of teaching staff, availability of instructional resources, discipline, the students’ family background, students’ attitude towards the subject and preparedness as well as subject delivery. Hence, this study is set to examine school resources and academic performance of students in government in senior secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

 

1.3  Objective of the Study

The general objective of the study is to examine school resources and academic performance of students in government in senior secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

Specifically, the objective of the study include:-

  • To assess personnel availability and academic performance in Government.
  • To examine instructional materials and academic performance in Government.
  • To find out effective utilization of school library and academic performance in Government.

 

1.4  Significance of the Study

The result of the study may be useful to various individuals and institutions. The findings would provide information to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the need to avail resources for the improvement of performance in Government.

The teachers also would most likely be motivated to use instructional materials to teach Government. It is also hoped that the study will consequently increase literature on school resources utilization (SRU) as well as forming a basis for further research involved in utilization of resources in schools.

 

1.5  Research Question

To guide the research study, the following research questions were formulated:-

  • How does the availability of personnel influence academic performance in Government?
  • To what extent does the utilization of instructional materials influence academic performance in Government?
  • How does effective utilization of school library influence academic performance in Government?

 

1.6   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:-

  1. There is no significant difference between personnel availability and academic performance in Government.
  2. There is no significant difference between utilization of instructional materials and academic performance in Government.
  3. There is no significant difference between effective utilization of school library and academic performance in Government.

 

1.7  Limitation of the Study

The limitations of the study were as follows:-

  • Lack of research materials like magazines, journals, textbooks, etc.
  • Lack of fund, for movement by the researcher, purchase of research materials to be used as well as meals.
  • Time constraint due to the work load ad it require combining the research work with the normal academic work.

 

Definition of Terms

School Resources: This refers to facilities that are needed for effective teaching –learning process to take place in school.

Human Resources: This refers to personnel or a workforce of institutions that implement a school program so as to meet set goals.

Non- Human Resources: This refers to buildings furniture’s, equipments, and plants that school use to meet goals.

Resources Utilization: This refers to how resources are used to get good results.

Conclusion

The result of the study revealed that school resources play a very important role in any educational institution. It is therefore concluded that there is a significant difference between availability of school resources and academic performance of students. It is also concluded that there is a significant difference between the utilization of school resources and academic performance of students.

 

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