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Title page





Table of Contents



1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study


1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6     Delimitation of the Study

1.7     Limitation of the Study

1.8     Definition of Terms




3.1     Area of the Study

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Population of the Study

3.4     Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.5     Instrumentation

3.6     Validation of the Instrument

3.7     Administration of the instrument

3.8     Method of Data Analysis          



4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Discussion of Findings     




5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations






1.1   Background to the Study

The school as a formal organization has many things in common with other formal organizations such as hospitals, churches and other bodies that depend on group co-operation for their achievement of their goals and objectives. Indeed, the school has its own clearly defined goals as a formal organization. Location in school young lives full of potential are moulded in order to help children to grow steadily until they become mature and well adjusted adult useful to themselves and to the society at large programme.

However, the school location has certain influence on students’ academic performance in learning Biology. Without reservation, the personnel structures of the school represent the larger society in that the young and old, the dull and the intelligent, the normal and abnormal, the emotionally stable and the maladjusted and the students of varying personality traits and of different socio-economic status or background.



The population of the school is broadly categorized into three main groups such as the students, the teaching and non-teaching staff. These groups of people continuously interact in a web of communication while performing their duties on a daily basis and it is through this network of relationship that learning takes place. For this reason, both the teaching and non-teaching staff find it very difficult to perform their duties successfully.


However, if the atmosphere created is conducive for effective teaching and learning of Biology in the same vein, Adoayin (2014) opined that, the school is an institution of teaching and learning. In fact, its purpose is to help in the development of the individual and the entire society. As an institution of teaching and learning, the school has the following attributes, location, buildings, teachers, a designed curriculum and a group of students or learners and programs.

Without a doubt, the school main purpose of existence is to educate the young ones and even adult in its formal settings. It is dedicated and committed to teaching and learning. It seeks to the development of the society of which the learners are members.


The school occupies on important place in the community. It is regarded as a reservoir of talent, skill, knowledge, attitude and aptitude that can be tapped for the development of the community. Knezeuich (2017) emphasized that, importance should be attached to the impact of goods workable school buildings and facilities and educational processes and methodology be applied within the system. School location and students’ academic performance in Biology.

The school location basically covers the settings of buildings and provision of equipment and facilities. It also includes the care of immediate school environment and surroundings. In fact, school location is the actual problems of the school which can affect the school expansion and in-turn affect the students’ academic performance in teaching and learning of Biology.


In addition, the other consideration in school location includes the size, topography, soil textures accessibility and water, the potential development of the people in the community towards the development of project and site accessibility for the students among others. The school location should be, for example, where there is a minimum of danger of high way crossing etc.

Furthermore, Adamachi (2022) pointed out that, this may be connected with certain influences and factors which the students are exposed to that affect the students as the case may be. Thus, this can be within and outside the school system in a given location.

Therefore, the school location in this study is taken to means all the influences or factors either environmental conditions or geographical effect or a combination of both that can act as an hindrance to students academic performance in Biology such includes school location, environmental factors, geographical factors, socio-economic factors and government politics among others.


1.2   Statement of the Problem 

Without a doubt, one of the most inhibiting factors against students’ academic performance in learning Biology is school location. Moreover, this factor has adversely affected the students to achieve optimum result in Biology. The study of Biology is faced with serious problem in recent time.

However, the process has affected the students in an unprecedented dimension as evident in poor learning, lack  of interest in learning and poor academic performance of students in Biology.


Furthermore, poor academic performance of students in Biology has been linked to inadequate of instructional materials teachers’ attitude to teaching, lack of qualify teachers and lack of Biology laboratory.

For this reason, it has caused students poor academic performance in Biology. Therefore, it was against this background that the study was carried out to investigate school location on students academic performance in Biology.


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to investigate school location and students’ academic performance in Biology in secondary schools. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Examine the difference in the academic performance of students in Biology based on school locations (Urban and Rural).
  2. Determine the difference in the academic performance of students in Biology based on gender (Male and Female).


1.4   Significance of the Study

They study will be of immense significance in the following areas:

Government: The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to government in order to check the location of school in both urban and rural school.

Teachers: The findings of this study will help to enlighten and further educate teachers on influence of school location in relation to students’ academic performance in Biology. Thus, teacher will benefit from this study in the sense that, they will modify their teaching method to suit with all categories of students in Biology.

Students: Also, the findings of this study will be of tremendous help to students in that there will be no form of distraction from their teachers that could affect their academic performance in Biology. School location and students’ academic performance in Biology.


Furthermore, the study will be of great benefit to parents who want to known the part they have to play in the overall development of their children academic performance in Biology.

In addition, the study will also provide bases for personal, social, educational as well as vocational counseling.

Lastly, the study will give accurate information to those who want to conduct further research in the related topic.


1.5   Research Hypotheses 

For the purposes of this study, two research hypotheses were formulated for the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students in rural area.
  2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female student in Biology in urban area.


1.6 Limitation of the Study  

The study has some major limitations which posed problem to the researcher. The following are the hindrances that hamper this study as follows:

  1. Problem of distance and geographical terrain of the study area.
  2. Constraint of unlimited time did not allow the researcher to carryout the research work in all secondary schools.


1.8   Definition of Terms

In order to enhance the proper understanding of this study, the following terms are defined in the context of this study as follows:

  1. School Location: It may be described as a place where the school is situated.
  2. Academic Performance: The levels of knowledge or skills attained by the students in a given subject, usually designated by scores or grade obtained by the students.



Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that, school should be established in a place whereby environment is conducive for effective teaching and learning. Also, school location should be made clean at all time and avoid dumping of refuse near the school environment in order to avoid pollution.


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