Project

SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG BIOLOGY STUDENTS

SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG BIOLOGY STUDENTS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE      –      INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

1.2  Statement of the Problem

1.3  Purpose of the study

1.5  Significance of the study

 

1.6  Research Questions

1.7  Research Hypotheses

1.8  Limitation of the Study

1.9  Delimitation of the study

1.10 Operational Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH DESIGN AND

METHODOLOGY

3.1  Research Design

3.2  Area of the Study

3.3  Population of the study

3.4  Sample and Sampling Procedure

 

3.5  Instrumentation

3.6  Validation of Instrument

3.7  Administration of Questionnaire

3.8  Scoring of Instrument

3.9  Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR       –       DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

OF FINDINGS

4.1  Summary of Findings

4.2  Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE     – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATION

5.1  Introduction

5.2  Summary

5.3. Conclusion

5.4  Recommendation

References

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the study

Without reservation, the school environment refers to factors within the school that influence the teaching-learning process. Moreover, the school environment includes classrooms, library, technical workshops, teachers’ quality, teaching methods, peers, among others variables that can affect the teaching–learning process (Ajayi 2021).

However, the extent to which Students learn could be enhanced depending on what the school environment provides to the learners and the teacher. In fact, it is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective teaching-learning process and academic performance of Students.

 

SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG BIOLOGY STUDENTS

Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud and Turner (2018) quoting Marsden (2015) which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment, school facilities were significantly related to students academic achievement in schools.

For instance, in developed countries like the United Kingdom and the Unites States of America, teaching and learning may not be affected by similar challenges as in the developing countries.

 

As the developing countries talk of awareness and wastage due to illiteracy of the parents, the developed countries have concentrated in funding their education without fear of any wastage or poor enrolment (MOEST: Report on Sector Review and Development, 2003).

In fact, the government has put up measures to ensure all public Secondary schools have all the required physical facilities, instructional materials among other variables that may lead to effective teaching-learning process. Without a doubt, instructional materials are a major component in the process of teaching and learning and textbooks are often the most cost effective means of improving academic achievement and increasing the efficiency of schools (Psachropoulous & Woodhall, 2015) in Mege (2022).

 

Moreover, in the developing countries, poor learning environments have always been identified as key factors that lead to poor performance in public Secondary schools (UNICEF, 2023). Hence, this is due to overstretching of the available resources due to increased enrollment. Also, the physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on the teachers, Students and the learning process. School environmental factors and academic performance among biology students.

Furthermore, poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms and inconsistent temperatures make teaching-learning process difficult. Also, poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among the Students and higher absentee rates among Students (Frazier, 2022, Lyons, 2021 and Ostendorf, 2021).

Udom (2014) noted that environment of the learners is one of the strong determinants in learning. This is due to the fact that there exist sonic interplay between the learning process and the learning environment. In addition, she opined that factors within the school environment should be put together to ensure effective learning in any given subject. Thus, this shows that learning environment should be conducive for effective learning to take place. Specifically, facilities needed within the school environment include classroom, libraries, laboratories, staff offices among others. Therefore, based on this background this study aimed to examine school environmental factors and academic performance among biology students.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Indeed, the Government commitment to education is noted from Child Right Law (2008) in Lazarus (2014) which guarantees every learner the right to free quality and relevant primary to secondary education. The government has invested in education especially in public schools through the introduction of Free Primary and Secondary Education. However, the State’s provision of Free Education is an effort to increase access and retention of pupils/students in schools. School environmental factors and academic performance among biology students.

The development of Education Sector is based on the rationale of the overall policy goal of achieving Education For All and the Government’s commitment to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as stipulated in National Policy on Education (2013).

Despite efforts made by the Government to ensure every child attends school by providing Free Education, there are children who still fail to attend school on a regular basis. Therefore, this study aimed to examine school environmental factors and academic performance among biology students.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate school environmental factors and academic performance among biology students. Specifically, the study sought to:

  • Examine effect of physical facilities on academic performance among Biology students in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
  • Investigate the influence of class size on academic performance among Biology students in secondary schools.

 

1.4   Significance of the study

It is hoped that the findings of the study may help school administrators reflect upon various factors that influence the teaching-learning process.

In so doing, they could investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their schools. Thus, which may consequently lead to reducing absenteeism, dropouts and repetition and consequently effective teaching-learning process. School environmental factors and academic performance among biology students.

These findings may also help the government through the Ministry of Education to provide more funds for schools for instructional materials and repair and maintenance of the available physical facilities, thus improving the teaching-learning process.

 

Parents may also use findings from this study to help improve the school facilities by organizing for fundraisers for instance to construct a classroom, laboratory, library among other facilities.

Furthermore, policy makers would use the findings to help them make decisions in developing strategies towards improvement of academic standards.

Lastly, future researchers would use the study in identifying priority areas and gaps on which to carry more research about public schools.

 

1.5   Research Hypotheses

(i)     There is no significant difference in academic performance among Biology students in schools with adequate physical facilities and those in schools without adequate physical facilities.

(ii)    There is no significant difference in academic performance among Biology students in normal class size and those in large class size.

 

Definition of Terms

School environmental factors are those aspects within the pupils’ surrounding at school that influence the teaching-learning process.

Physical facilities: This refers to the movable and immovable objects in schools that bring comfort to the learner. They include classrooms, laboratories, offices, toilets, desks.

Class size: In brief, this is the number of students in a class. A normal class size have a ratio of 1:40 and large class size have a 1:40 and above.

Academic Performance: In brief, this is the grade or scores of students in examination.

 

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that secondary schools have inadequate physical facilities which influences the academic performance of students in Biology. In addition, the class size was found to influence the teaching-learning process as small classes were mostly preferred by most teachers and even students and this influence the academic performance of students in Biology.

 

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Ikemesit

Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with projectboss.com.ng. I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research. ikemesitetukapan20233@gmail.com

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