Research Proposals

SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Research Questions

 

1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6     Significance of the study

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

1.8     Limitation of the Study

1.9     Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODS

3.1     Research Design

3.2     Area for the study

3.3    Population for the study

3.4     Sampling and Sampling Technique

3.5     Instrumentation

 

3.6     Instrument Validation

3.7     Administration of Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1     Data Presentation and Analysis

4.2     Discussion of Result

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

5.4     Suggestions for further study

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Teaching and learning does not occur in a vacuum. Moreover, schools are established to accomplish the lofty aims objectives of education. In brief, a school is an institution where children of different ages, beliefs, background and abilities receive formal education under the tutelage of teachers. Indeed, it is an environment that provides a variety of learning experiences for learners.

Davis (2021) note that the school environment is the first environment that gives the children the opportunity to interact with a large number of people outside the home environment. In fact, it is a place where they spend a see-able amount of time.

 

The school also serves as a practical unit for transmitting values, skills and attitudes for promotion of meaning learning. Furthermore, Cooper (2017) points out that the school environment includes the classrooms, libraries, workshops, laboratories, teachers quality, school management/policies, peers, etc. It is very essential in the teaching learning process since the extent to which children’s learning could be improved depends on their location within the school, conditions of classrooms, availability and adequacy of instructional resources and facilities, ratio of students/teachers, among others.

 

SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Therefore, in this way, a well planned and managed school will foster expected educational outcomes, which is better academic performance. Moreover, according to Lassa (2019), the school environment encompasses the diverse physical location and surroundings in which students undergo formal training. Also, it represents a multi-dimensional construct comprising of physical, social and academic dimensions.

 

The physical dimension cuts across the appearance of school buildings, organization of classrooms, availability of materials and equipment as well as other tangible accessories of the school. The quality of relationship between and among learners, teachers and other personnel constitutes the social dimension whereas the academic dimension features the quality of instruction, the level of students’ engagement and progress. School environment and academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools.

Oluchukwu (2015) Stresses that the school environment is a crucial component of student life. It ought to provides learners with a serene environment to grow emotionally, behaviourally and academically while at the same time developing relation with others. He outlines the qualities of an ideal school environment to indicate the following:

(i)     There must be standard buildings and other structures

(ii)    There must be discipline and orderliness.

(iii)    There must be sufficient materials for class instruction

(iv)   There must be a manageable school size in terms of student – population.

 

(v)    There must be good sanitary conveniences

(vi)   There must be well-ventilated and lighted classrooms

(vii)   There must be adequate supplies like tables, chairs, desks and shelves.

(viii)  There must be a tranquil atmosphere devoid of noise pollution and other distractions.

(ix)    There must be flow of communication between heads, teachers and students.

(x)    There must be a sound security network.

 

The importance of the school environment is not in doubt. This is because the school environment wields a tremendous influence on the quality of teaching a student receives and the degree of his/her participation in class. It implies that schools that fail to create a stimulating atmosphere for learning may hardly put in area of achievement in academic work.

In essence, there is need for the school environment to be properly organized, planned and coordinated to give a boost to teaching and learning. Therefore, it is against this belief that the present researcher delves into examining school environment and academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools” is the deplorable condition of most public secondary schools.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem      

The quality of education today does not only depend on the teachers as flecked in the performance of their duties but also on effective co-ordination of the school environment. The school environment is an essential aspect of educational planning and unless schools are well suited, buildings firmly erected and facilities adequately utilized or maintained, much teaching and learning may not take place (Oluchukwu, 2015).

The researcher has observed with dismay that in Ikot Abasi local government Area, many secondary schools are in a state of disrepair. For example; the environment is dotted with dilapidated buildings, inadequate seats, inefficient manpower, overcrowded classrooms, lack of learning materials, among others. School environment and academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools.

 

However, to worsen matters, some of these schools are cited in area with bad terrain. No wonder, the quality of instruction in majority of these schools has always been on the decline.

Moreover, Biology in one of the core science subjects in senior secondary schools as enshrined in the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2014). Unfortunately, the performance of students in the subject at both internal and external examinations over the years has not been very impressive.

 

In addition, a lot of research have attributed the ugly scenario to a number of factors including school environment which forms the main thrust of this study. Therefore, in a nutshell, the problem which has necessitated the current study “School environment and academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools” is the deplorable condition of most public secondary schools across the local government area.

 

1.3   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The general aim of the study is to examine school environment and academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools. This is encapsulated in the following specific objectives which are to:  

(i)     determine the influence of school facilities on academic performance of student in Biology.

(ii)    determine the influence of class size on academic performance of students in Biology

(iii)    determine the influence of school location on academic performance of students in Biology.

 

1.4   Significance of the Study      

                The study is significant in the following: ways:

(i)    Firstly, it will help to improve the academic performance of secondary school students in Biology

(ii)    Secondly, it will enlighten the government and corporate bodies (like STAN) in providing standard science facilities to boost the teaching and learning in schools.

 

(iii)    Furthermore, it will help teachers to create a serene, safe and conducive atmosphere for instruction in the classroom.

(iv)   Also, it will enable the state ministry of education and state secondary education the construction of new blocks and employment of more teachers.

(v)    Lastly, it will serve as a reference point for future researchers who might investigate similar variables.

 

1.5   Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:    

(i)     What is the effect of school facilities on academic performance of students in Biology?

(ii)    What is the effect of class size on academic performance of students in Biology?

(iii)    What is the effect of school location on academic performance of students in Biology?

 

1.6   Limitation of the Study

In undertaking a research of this nature, limitation are inevitable and these are explained below:

(i)     Financial constraint: this will pose a major sellback as the researcher may not be buoyant enough to visit schools in other areas.

(ii)    Time Constraint: The period given for completion of this work will hardly allow for a comprehensive research due to the researcher’s involvement in other academic activities.

(iii)   Reticence: The respondents may be unwilling to offer honest responses to the items on the instrument.

 

Definition of Terms:

                The following terms are defined as used in the study:

(i)     School: This refers to an institution where teaching and learning take place.

(ii)    School Environment: This refers to the physical, social and academic space or atmosphere surrounding the school.

(iii)    School Facilities: This refers to educational resources available to students and teachers that will improve teaching and learning in schools e.g classrooms, laboratory, library, computers, textbooks etc. School environment and academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools.

 

(iv)   Class size: In brief, this refers to the maximum number of children a teacher interacts with in the course of instruction.

(vi)   School Location: This refers to a child receiving formal education in a post-primary institution of learning.

(vii)   Secondary School: In brief, this refers to an institution where children undergo formal education after the primary level.

(viii)  Academic Performance: This refers to the cumulative scores of a child in the school record as obtained from test and examination.

 

Conclusion

Based on the findings, the following conclusion were drawn:

(i)     There is a significant effect of school facilities on academic performance of students in Biology.

(ii)    There is a significant effect of class size on academic performance of students in Biology

(iii)    There is a significant effect of school location on academic performance of students in Biology.

 

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