Research Proposals

SCHOOL CLIMATE CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

SCHOOL CLIMATE, CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

DISCOUNT Sales!!! Get complete material at 45 percent Discount TODAY - Pay 1350 instead of ₦3000. Call/WhatsApp 07068634102

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

In the recent years, students’ academic achievement in Nigerian schools especially in public schools has been a source of concern to all stakeholders in the state. The enormity and critical nature of educational challenges is evident in the increasing poor performances of students in both internal and external examinations.

Jega (2023), Adedoja (2017), Marafa (2017) and Isaac (2017) revealed that students have not been doing very well in examinations and their performances had been worrisome. There has been a general apprehension about the fallen standard of education in Nigerian educational system.

The situation in schools has been deteriorating at such an alarming rate that many critics described the standard of education in Nigeria to have fallen (Aliyu, 2017 & Isaac, 2017). This unfortunate trend has become a source of concern considering the great importance of education to national development.

Coincidentally school climate and class size are the foremost school variables that influence students’ learning outcomes. National School Climate Centre (2012) described school climate as the quality and character of the school life that fosters or undermines children’s development and learning achievement.

 

It is based on patterns of school life experience which reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching, learning, leadership practices, and organizational structures (National School Climate Council, 2019). It was reiterated that a sustainable, positive school climate fosters youth development and learning necessary for a productive, contributing, and satisfying life in a democratic society.

School climate is refers to as the tone, feeling, character or personality of a work environment. Its characteristic pervasiveness enable parents, educators, students and community members form judgements about a school on gaining entrance into it.

 

SCHOOL CLIMATE CLASS SIZE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

According to Amie-Ogan & Emekom (2020), school climate refers to the quality and character of school life. A positive school climate helps people feel socially, emotionally and physically safe in schools. It includes students’, parents’ and school personnel’s norms, beliefs, relationships, teaching and learning practices, as well as organizational and structural features of the school (Amie-Ogan & Emekom, 2020).

 

According to the National School Climate Council (2016), a sustainable, positive school climate promotes students’ academic and social development. In negative school climate, schools are deterred in their mission and goals by parental and public demands.

 

Negative school climate lack an effective leader and the teachers are generally unhappy with their jobs and colleagues. In addition, neither teachers nor students are academically motivated in poor schools and academic achievement is not highly valued (Hoy, 2017).

The National School Climate Center (2016) defined school climate as the quality of school life experienced by students, caregivers, school personnel, and others interacting with the school environment.

 

A positive school climate, then, is one where the school attends to each of the following: (a) fostering safety; (b) promoting a supportive academic, disciplinary, and physical environment; and (c) encouraging and maintaining respectful, trusting, and caring relationships throughout the school community.

Marina & Hinjari (2008) in Amie-Ogan & Emekom Judith Onyinyechi (2020) identified six types of climates prevailing in schools such as open, paternal, familiar, autonomous, close and controlled. An open climate describes the openness and authenticity of interaction that exists among the principal, teachers, students and parents.

 

Hoy and Sabo (2009) in Amie-Ogan & Emekom Judith Onyinyechi (2020) emphatically stressed that an open climate reflects the principals and teachers’ cooperatives, supportive and receptive attitudes to each other’s ideas and their commitment to work. The principal according to them shows genuine concern for teachers, motivates and encourages staff members, gives the staff freedom to carry out their duties in the best way they know, and does not allow routine duties to disrupt teachers’ instructional responsibilities.

Familiar climate depicts a laissez-faire atmosphere. The principal is concerned about maintaining a friendly atmosphere at the expense of task accomplishment. Over familiarity between the head-teacher and teachers could result in an upsurge of laxity and poor school performance.

According to Oborah (2019), paternal climate depicts an atmosphere where the principal is hardworking, but unfortunately, his/her hard work has no effect on the teachers. There is a degree of closeness between the head-teacher and teachers, but the head-teacher’s expectation from teachers is rather impracticable.

 

Research has shown the relationship of school climate as a factor influencing success or failure of education to teachers and students. Productive school climate needs a good teaching and learning strategies, sufficient instructional materials, richer classroom ecology, pleasant school culture, objective administration and good school physical structures (Payal, 2017).

Class size on the other hand, according to Chileya (2016) class size has become a phenomenon often mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on students feelings and achievement, on administration, quality and school budgets. In his words he noted that, class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers/lecturers have little or no control.

 

Most researchers start from the assumption that size of the class would prove a significant determinant of the degree of success of students. In fact with the exception of a few, many studies have reported that under ideal situation class size in itself appears to be an important factor.

 

Class size affects classroom management, classroom instruction, and the academic achievement of the students (Kusi, 2019). Taha (2021) and Uhrain (2016) found that larger classes are often cited as being harder for the teachers/ lecturers to maintain student discipline. Resulting in the focus of the classroom environment being more on student behavior than on student academic achievement.

Class size directly affects classroom instruction due to larger class sizes requiring teachers to utilize class time for management tasks rather than for instruction. Also, class size directly affects classroom instruction through the interactions of the teachers with the students. School climate class size and academic achievement of students in secondary schools.

 

Higher levels of interaction between students and teachers, as well as increased levels of students engagement within smaller classes, have been cited in numerous studies (Kusi, 2019; Owoeye and Yara, 2016; Uhrain, 2016).

In addition, Obadara (2015) emphasized that class size, quality of teaching, instruction delivery and overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for poor quality of teaching and mass failure and thus making teachers to be frustrated, underrated, blamed, and also makes students to lose interest in school. This is because large class size does not allow individual student to get attention from the teacher which invariably leads to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic achievement. This study therefore aimed to examine school climate, class size and academic achievement in social studies among junior secondary schools.

 

1.2     Statement of the Problem

A school climate may indicate a great deal of cooperation among the various groups in the school setting while another might reveal a climate of tension, friction and even lack of cooperation among the groups. That is to say that the school climate of school could influence the performance of both teachers and students positively or negatively as the case might be.

In one school, the head-teachers and students may find pleasure in working together while in another school, it might be discontent among these schools functionaries. Also, in one school, teachers might appear well organized, competent and may exhibit confidence in whatever they do, whereas in another school, there might be tension as the head-teacher losses control. School climate class size and academic achievement of students in secondary schools.

 

It has been observed that physical facilities especially classrooms are inadequate in many public schools. This resulted into overcrowded classes which is inimical to good academic achievement. It is also noticeable in most schools that some teachers are teaching some subjects that are not in their area of specialization due to lack of adequate qualified teachers in their area of specialization due to lack of adequate qualified teachers and this may affect effective teaching and learning. In this regards, the dwindling performance of social studies students in junior secondary schools as related to school climates and class size constitutes the problem which this study intends to examine.

 

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine school climate, class size and academic achievement in social studies among junior secondary schools. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. determine the influence of open climate on students academic achievement in junior secondary schools.
  2. ascertain the influence of paternal climate on students academic achievement in junior secondary schools.
  3. find out the influence of familiar climate on students academic achievement in junior secondary schools.
  4. examine the influence of class size on students academic achievement in social studies among junior secondary schools.

 

1.4     Research Questions

  1. To what extent does open school climate influence students’ academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary schools?
  2. To what extent does paternal school climate influence students’ academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary schools?
  3. To what extent does familiar school climate influence students’ academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary schools?
  4. How does class size influence students’ academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary schools?

 

1.5     Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of qualified teachers and Non-Teaching staff on the extent open school climate influence students’ academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary schools.
  2. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of qualified teachers and Non-Teaching staff on the extent paternal school climate influence students’ academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary schools .
  3. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of qualified teachers and Non-Teaching staff on the extent familiar school climate influence students’ academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary schools.
  4. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of academic achievement of students in large class size and those in small class size in social studies in junior secondary schools.

 

1.6     Significant of the Study

(i)      It would reveal if school climate account for the poor academic achievement of students in primary schools.

(ii)     It would make known the specific school environmental factors that affect students’ academic achievement in school.

(iii)    It would provide Government with research data in planning for the overall development of the school system. School climate class size and academic achievement of students in secondary schools.

 

(iv)    It would add to the body of existing literature on school climate and class size in relation to students’ academic achievement.

(v)     The Government will also find this study a useful guide in deciding on the spread of infrastructure such as the quantity of classrooms that will be adequate for the available and anticipated school enrolment.

(vi)    Finally it would serve as a reference material for further research on climate change and academic achievement not only in junior secondary schools but other level of institutions.

 

1.7     Limitation of the Study

Some of the challenges encountered while conducting the research include lack of sufficient funds and short duration assigned for the study.

 

Definition of Terms

School climate: The totality of factors that directly or indirectly influence the teaching and learning process. It constitute school buildings, classroom blocks, teaching learning facilities such as libraries, sport grounds, laboratories, buildings and the general out-lay of the school.

Class Size: This refers to the total number of students in a particular class at any given time. Class size in this study was categorised as follows:

  1. Small class size 1-30 students
  2. Medium class size  31-40 students
  3. Large class size 41 and

 Social Studies: Social Studies:  A Core social science subject offering at the primary and junior secondary level of education.

 

Conclusion

It is an indisputable fact that the success of the teaching-learning process depends on a large extent on the total environmental quality of a school, as no meaningful learning can take place in an unstable school climate as well as overcrowded class size. From the findings of the study, it was concluded that open, paternal and familiar school climates and class size influence students’ academic achievement in social studies.

 

DISCLAIMER: THIS WEBSITE CONTAINS A PROJECT GUIDE aimed to guide project students in writing their original project. Therefore, all information, including but not limited to, text, graphics, images and other material contained on this website are for educational and informational purposes for students, researchers and readers only. To get more useful contents on educational project or instant download of complete project material on any topic or project writing services. Reach out to us with +2347068634102

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

Related Articles

Back to top button
Open chat
1
Scan the code
Hello 👋
Welcome to projectboss 24/7customer services.