PRIMARY SCHOOL LOCATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE

PRIMARY SCHOOL LOCATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE
PRIMARY SCHOOL LOCATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE

PRIMARY SCHOOL LOCATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of contents

List of tables

Chapter One: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Research Questions

1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6     Significance of the Study

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

1.8     Limitation of the Study

1.9     Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Urban Schools and Academic Performance of Students

2.2     Rural Schools and Academic Performance of Students

2.3     School Location, Noise and Academic Performance

2.4     School Location, Distance and Academic Performance

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1     Area of the study

3.2     Research design

3.3     Population of the study

3.4     Sample and sampling technique

3.5     Instrument for data collection

3.6     Validation of instrument

3.7     Administration of instrument

3.8     Scoring of Instrument

3.9     Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

 

4.1     Presentation of Data

4.2     Discussion of findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS

AND CONCLUSION

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Suggestions for further studies

References

Appendix

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table I:      t-test computation of mean achievement scores of

students in Urban and Rural schools in

Integrated Science

 

Table II:     t-test analysis of the mean achievement scores

of male and female students in Urban schools

 

Table III:   A t-test analysis of the mean achievement scores of male and female students in Rural schools

 

ABSTRACT

This study titled “School location and students’ academic performance among junior secondary school students in Integrated Science” was conducted to investigate the influence of school location on the academic performance of students in Itu Local Government Area. The population of the study consisted of all JSS III students in all the secondary schools in the area.

The sample size was 400 students randomly selected from eight secondary schools out of the twenty three (23) private and public schools in the study area. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The design for the study was survey research design. Therefore, Integrated Science Achievement Test (ISAT) and a 14-item questionnaire was used for data collection. Thereafter, data was subjected to t-test statistical analysis.

The findings of this study revealed that there was no significant difference in the academic performance of students in urban and rural schools in Integrated Science.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

The quest by teachers and educators on factors that can help improve students’ academic performance has been on the high side for many decades now following the realization of education as an important instrument for national development.

Most researchers have directed their studies on factors such as socio-economic status of parent (Ekanem, 2011); parents literacy level (Akpan, 2014), teachers qualification and experience (Udo, 2010) and lots more. Inspite of these good researches and recommendations made, remarkable variation still persist in the academic performance of students in various school locations making it difficult for teachers, counsellors and the likes to have a firm stand on the type of school to recommend to parents when such need arises.

 

On the other hand, the urban schools though witnessing mass exodus of teachers and students into it are also faced with its own challenges due to its location which is the noise. However, noise produced by heavy trucks, plants, engines, factories, industries and other forms of automobiles mostly characterized urban schools.

Therefore, the high population of humans in urban areas makes market and even churches to constitute a source of noise to urban schools. However, school located in the outskirt of urban areas happen to be at intermediary point  as it experience little of the urban and rural features put together.

 

PRIMARY SCHOOL LOCATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Nigeria has witnessed a tremendous increase in the number of schools built in different localities and locations in the state.

Although the intention is to make education more accessible, this in a way could be as a result of the fact that some school owners are seeing it as a very lucrative line of business and as such do not mind whether the location will support adequate learning or not. Some school owners turn their bedrooms for this purpose while some go as far as sharing a building used in marketing and other businesses making the whole situation more confusing to parents and educators.

 

Observation have shown that while most parents will want to send their children to urban schools, some others choose the rural schools for their wards with the belief that it has a conducive learning environment compared to those at the urban areas. Therefore, the researcher having noted this state of confusion. Therefore, this study is on the impact of school location on the academic performance of students among Junior Secondary school students in Itu Local Government Area.

 

1.3    Purpose of the Study

Generally, this study was to investigate the place of school location in the academic performance of students. Specifically, the research objectives were;

  1. To determine the differences between the academic performance of students in urban and rural schools.
  2. To determine if gender is a factor in the academic performance of students in urban schools
  3. To determine if gender is a factor in the academic performance of students in rural schools.

 

1.4    Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of students in urban and rural schools in Integrated Science
  2. There is no significant difference between academic performance of the male and female students in urban schools.
  3. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of male and female students in rural schools.

 

1.5    Significance of the Study

The study may be of a great significance to parents, counsellors, policy makers and students:

–       Firstly, to the parents, this research finding may provide the answer to the type of school they should send their wards to.

–       Secondly, the counsellors will help counsel the parents and students on the right location that will be more friendly to learning using the findings of this work.

 

–       To the policy makers, the finding of this work may be useful in making policy which when enforced will regulate the siting of schools with a view to promoting good learning environment that will enhance quality teaching-learning process. In general, the results of this study will recommend factors that

government should consider for locating, relocating or complete removal of a school structure to ensure better performance particularly in Integrated Science and promote learner friendly environment.

 

PRIMARY SCHOOL LOCATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE

1.7    Limitation of the Study

Certain factors limited the speedy completion of the study. These are:

Transportation: The area selected for the study posted a great challenge as some were not accessible due to poor road networks. Thus, some even required the use of canoe or swimming skill.

Time: In brief, this was the major factor that militated against the study as the time was too short for the completion of this work. Apart from two identified limiting factors of transportation and time. Therefore, the researcher had some difficulties in soliciting the cooperation of the school heads and the students sampled for the study.

 

1.9    Definition of Terms

Integrated Science: This refers to an approach to the teaching of science aimed at enabling students gain the concept of fundamental unity of science and also gain an understanding of the roles and functions of science in everyday life and the world in which they live.

School: In brief, this is a place where formal or organized education is being given.

School Location: In brief, this refers to the geographical area or place (rural, urban, hill, valley or plane) where a school building is sited and used for teaching-learning process.

Academic Performance: In brief, this refers to the extent to which a student or an institution of learning achieves success in what was learnt or on the goal that was set. It will be used interchangeably with achievement scores.

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The review of related literature will be discussed under the following sub-heading:

2.1    Urban Schools and Academic Performance of Students

Educational researchers have examined rural and urban differences in the academic achievement of students. Many factors are responsible for gap in performance between the rural and urban schools (Brown & Swanson, 2011). The researcher conducted an investigation into the possible factors in the disparity of students’ performance in urban and rural areas and highlighted among other things the following:

Family Factor: In brief, at the urban areas, family is one of the factors that determine the child performance. The study showed that students in rural areas have low performance compared to those in urban areas because it was related to their parents’ educational level.

Majority of parents in rural areas are less educated than parents at the urban areas. Adelle (2012) contended that family background is the weightiest factor in determining the academic success of a child. The researcher further maintained that rural students felt no pressure to attain good performance when their parents’ experience and expectations towards education were low.

 

School Facilities Factor: Indeed, the outstanding factor that contributes to the gap in rural and urban academic performance of students is the availability of facilities.

However, in rural areas, most schools structures are dilapidated. The problem regarding unequal distribution of resources between provinces (rural and urban) areas are still intact (Papalis, 2011).

 

Several schools in rural areas do not have libraries and laboratories. The situation means that students learn science courses by rote method. Facilities are essential in order to make the teaching-learning process more effective (Matala, 2012).

 

Qualified Teachers: Teachers are very important in their role of creating good performance.

Obviously, the researcher remarked that there is a direct relationship between the quality of teaching personnel and the quality of educational process.

Feel (2010) contended that irrespective of teachers’ credentials and subject specific concern, generally, teachers in rural schools more often report having to work with outdated textbooks in short supply; outdated computers and other kinds of technology; and inadequate or non-existent science equipment, materials and laboratories. A condition that makes the differential gap in academic performance of urban schools appearing better than their rural counterparts.

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