PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgements

 

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE:     INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

 

1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO:    REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

 

3.5       Instrumentation

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2           Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study

References

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background to the Study

Intestinal parasitic infections represent a persistent global health challenge, particularly prevalent in resource-constrained settings where access to clean water, sanitation infrastructure, and healthcare services remains limited (Strunz et al., 2014).

Among the most susceptible demographics are primary school children, whose immune systems are still maturing and who frequently encounter contaminated environments in their daily lives. Protozoan parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, as well as helminths including roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms, are among the causative agents responsible for a spectrum of health complications, ranging from malnutrition and growth stunting to anemia and cognitive impairment (Bethony et al., 2006).

 

PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

Undeniably, the investigation into the prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school children holds multifaceted significance. Primarily, it offers critical insights into the scale of the issue within specific populations, guiding the formulation of targeted public health interventions and resource allocation strategies.

Moreover, elucidating the risk factors associated with parasite transmission—such as inadequate sanitation practices, poor hygiene habits, and limited access to potable water—enables the development of tailored interventions aimed at reducing transmission rates and improving overall community health outcomes (Strunz et al., 2014).

 

Furthermore, assessing the impact of parasitic infections on children’s health and educational attainment underscores the broader socio-economic ramifications of these diseases, emphasizing the urgency of comprehensive prevention and control measures (Quihui-Cota et al., 2004).

Furthermore, intestinal parasites are parasites that populate the gastro-intestinal tract. They are larger than bacteria and viruses but some of them are so small that one cannot see them without a microscope. Intestinal parasitic infections have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. Numerous studies have shown that the incidence of intestinal parasites may approach 99% in developing countries (Ambrose, 2001).

 

Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most prevalent of human parasitic infections worldwide (Jeliffe, 1966; Toriole, 1990; WHO, 1966). Several epidemiological studies had indicated a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among Nigeria children (Salimon and Akinyemi, 1988; WHO, 1978, 1987; Graitcher, 1988).

 

Soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) or Geohelminthes are one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are causing world’s major human health problems until now. Specifically, four species of helminthes, namely, Hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura are primary agents of STH, and estimated infected populations are 1.3 billion, 1.5 billion, and 1.0 billion people, respectively (Crompton, 1999). Moroever, geohelminthes are more important among children and in poor or malnourished populations in morbidity and mortality. It was speculated that 15% of host population harbored 70% of STH worm burdens (Bundy and de Silva, 1998).

Inadequate hygiene, poor health care systems and facilities, social indifference, social instability, civil wars, and natural disasters make situations worse. Geohelminthes and poverty are intimately linked in a vicious cycle in most developing countries. The DALY (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) score of STH is around 4.65 million over the world (Horton, 2003). However, priority of STH control is often neglected even in wormy countries. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school children.

 

Infection with parasitic helminthes is often recognized as one of the important public health problems in tropical inhabitants. Here, there exist over 2,000 million helminthic infections, with about 15 million Nigerians suffering from ascariasis alone, while there are several thousand with strongyloidiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, hookworm, tapeworm infections among others (Edungbola and Obi, 1992). This indicates that the prevalence of and morbidity from intestinal helminthiasis are enormous.

Many parasitic infections, especially those with helminthic origins are asymptomatic, could only produce mild or, in a typical case, confusing symptoms (Anosike et al., 2006). Thus they are often neglected until bizarre, serious or chronic clinical pictures are present. However, in most rural communities, low standard of sanitation and poor socio-economic conditions are obvious predisposing factors to high prevalence of human intestinal helminthiasis (Gundiri and Akogun, 2000).

Although several reports exist in Nigeria on the mortality and morbidity of most intestinal helminth parasites (Ogbe and Odudu, 1990; Dada et al., 1993), the much needed baseline data on the level of endemicity of human intestinal helminthiasis especially on the rural sectors are not easily recorded and do not exist (Ukoli, 1990).

 

Considering the impact of parasitic infection among children; coupled with the fact that there is no information on gastro-intestinal studies in Uyo Local Government Area, from which the present study is conceived.

Despite concerted efforts to combat intestinal parasites through mass deworming campaigns and health education initiatives, prevalence rates persist at alarming levels in many regions worldwide. Hence, this underscores the intricate interplay of environmental, socio-economic, and cultural determinants contributing to parasitic transmission dynamics. Therefore, based on this background, this study aimed to examine prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school children in Uyo Local Government Area.

 

1.2          Statement of the Problem

Observations indicate a persistent prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children, particularly notable in regions with limited access to adequate sanitation and healthcare resources. Despite the implementation of various interventions, including deworming programs and health education initiatives, the burden of these infections remains substantial, adversely affecting the health and educational outcomes of affected children.

 

Moreover, the observed complexities of parasitic transmission dynamics underscore the need for a deeper understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this public health challenge. Therefore, there is a pressing need to investigate the observed prevalence, risk factors, and socio-demographic correlates of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children to inform targeted interventions and policy development. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school children.

In addition, in response to these observations, this study aims to delve into the prevalence and determinants of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children within  the area.

Without a doubt, by conducting comprehensive observations and analyses, including epidemiological assessments and socio-demographic surveys, the study seeks to elucidate the multifaceted dynamics driving parasitic transmission in the target population.

 

Furthermore, the study aims to explore the observed impact of parasitic infections on children’s health and educational performance, thereby providing valuable insights into the broader socio-economic implications of these diseases.

Hence, the findings derived from these observations are expected to guide the development of evidence-based strategies aimed at mitigating the burden of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children and fostering improved health outcomes in affected communities. Therefore, this study aimed to examine prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school children in Uyo Local Government Area.

 

1.3          Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to examine prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school children in Uyo Local Government Area. Specifically, the study aimed to:

  1. Examine the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites found in the stool specimens from pupils
  2. Examine the prevalence of intestinal parasites with respect to sex, age groups and occupation of parents of pupils
  3. Examine the prevalence of intestinal parasites with respect to class of pupils

 

1.4          Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  1. What is the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites found in the stool specimens from pupils?
  2. What is the prevalence of intestinal parasites with respect to sex, age groups and occupation of parents of pupils?
  3. What is the prevalence of intestinal parasites with respect to class of pupils?

 

1.5          Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

HO: Null hypothesis: there is no significance difference between the males and females.

Alternative hypothesis: there is significance difference between the males and females.

 

HO: Null hypothesis: there is no significance difference between the age groups.

Alternative hypothesis: there is significance difference between the age groups.

HO: Null hypothesis: there is no significance difference between the parents occupation.

HI: Alternative hypothesis: there is significance difference between the parents occupation.

HO: Null hypothesis: there is no significance difference between the classes.

HI: Alternative hypothesis: there is significance difference between the classes.

 

1.6          Significance of the Study

  • Firstly, the findings will serve as a robust foundation for designing and implementing targeted public health interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children. Hence, by pinpointing specific risk factors and socio-demographic correlates, these interventions can be finely tuned to address the unique needs of the community, thereby maximizing their impact and effectiveness.
  • Secondly, by gaining a deeper understanding of the determinants of parasitic transmission, the study aims to contribute to improved health outcomes among primary school children. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school children.

 

  • Parasitic infections can significantly hinder children’s educational attainment due to their adverse effects on health and cognitive function. Therefore, by elucidating the relationship between parasitic infections and educational outcomes, the study seeks to underscore the critical importance of addressing parasitic infections as a means of fostering better educational outcomes among primary school children, ultimately empowering them with the tools they need to succeed academically.
  • Furthermore, the study’s focus on improving health and educational outcomes among primary school children has broader socio-economic implications for the community.

 

  • In addition, the study will serve as a reference point or material for other researchers who may like to carry out research on the similar topic.
  • Finally, the study will add to the body of scientific knowledge on the epidemiology and control of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children.

 

Definitions of Terms

Prevalence: Prevalence is a term used in epidemiology to describe the proportion of a particular population found to have a condition or attribute at a specific point in time.

Intestinal parasites: In brief, intestinal parasites are organisms that live inside the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, where they can cause infections and various health issues.

Primary school children: In brief, primary school children are typically defined as pupils between the ages of 5 and 12 years old who are enrolled in primary or elementary schools. Thus, this educational stage is crucial for children’s development as it lays the foundation for their future academic success.

 

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