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Title Page


Approval Page



Table of Contents



1.1          Background to the Study

1.2          Statement of the Problem

1.3          Purpose of the Study

1.4          Research Questions


1.5          Hypotheses

1.6          Significance of the Study

1.7          Scope/Delimitation of the Study

1.8          Definition of Operational Terms




3.1          Design of the Study

3.2          Population of the Study

3.3          Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.4          Research Instrument

3.5          Validity of the Instrument


3.6          Reliability of the Instrument

3.7          Administration of the Instrument

3.8          Data Analysis Technique



4.1          Analyses of Data Results

4.2          Summary of Major Findings

4.3          Discussion of the Findings



5.1          Summary

5.2          Conclusion

5.3          Recommendations

5.4          Suggestions for Further Studies






1.1   Background to the study

A nation that neglects the education of the girl child is heading for peril or doom (According to an old saying). A girl child is a biological female offspring from birth to 18 years of age. This is the age before one becomes a young adult. Specifically, this period covers the crèche, nursery or early childhood (0-5 years), Primary (6-12 years), and Secondary School (12-18 years).

However, according to Ocho (2023), education involves a process through which individuals are make functional members of their society. Furthermore, it is a process through which the young person acquires knowledge and realizes him/herself potentials and uses them for self actualization. In fact, it is a means of processing, transmitting and improving the culture of the society. UNESCO report of education for all (2012) emphasis that early learning begins at birth.

Moreover, it further explains that early learning has strong and positives input on further learning in primary education and beyond. The report advocates that the period from birth to the start of primary education is a critical formative stage for the growth and development of the child.



Girl child education is an issue with growing silence in Nigeria. It has been the subject of debate in force in the country from the drafting of policy papers to the setting up of women right groups. The average rural Nigerian parents will rather invest in the education of the make child than the female (Afforma, 2019).

In the Northern part of the country for instance, young girls are denied the benefit of education with grave consequences for both the individual and the society at large. Undeniably, in every civilized society, education plays a key role in human capital development and as means to successful living for the people. The society attitude towards girl child education in Nigeria varies from region to region (Meyer and Young 2023)

However, in the South, the girl child is privileged and given the opportunity to qualitative education but most as a major obstacle which prevents them from gaining offer.  Thus, in some cases illiteracy, serves as a challenge for those living in the rural areas.


Moreover, the North in particular, attitude of parents towards girl child education is indifferent. More children (girls) resort to street begging. Girl child enrolment in schools is considerably low, that is why we hear of AMAJERIS. Kudos to the former and immediate past president, Goodluck Jonathan who saw the need to build and commission thirteen amajeri-schools and five girls-schools in the North in 2014.

Finally, Ekaettes, Akons, Affiongs, Imaobongs were synonymous with house-mates or house-girls in every part of this country and beyond. These were the names a particular girl child from Akwa Ibom State was known and called. Majority of them were Nannies or baby-sitters, waitresses, restaurant-attendants etc; not until the advent of last administration with Chief Dr. Godswill Akpabio as Governor.

Therefore, girl child education in Akwa Ibom State was very poor which consequences produced the above named human capital. With the past administration in place dignity, importance and hope was returned to the girl child vis a vis boy child through basic and compulsory free primary and secondary education. For over ten years now greater percentages of the girl child are beneficiaries of this noble and life changing project, though much needs to be done as some still fail to avail themselves of this opportunity.


1.2   Statement of the Problem

All parents want the  best for their children but the level of their desires and efforts vary accordingly in terms of the sex of their children.

In communities, males are valued and respected by their family members as compared to their female counterparts. A home without a male child is considered as unfruitful and incomplete and often brings unhappiness to such homes. Females are not expected to be bread-winners but are regarded as wives and mothers to be. Some are given education but not as much as the male children, they are also not expected to challenge the males or to be as independent as they (males).


In most parts of Nigeria, girl children are forced into an arranged marriage at very young age without their consent, whereby they are expected to please and satisfy their husbands by bearing many children especially males and will be disowned if they refuse or oppose the ideas. But in case whereby the woman is unable to bear a child she will be cast aside and replaced with another one who can, leaving her utterly heartbroken and feeling worthless.

Therefore, this research was aimed at finding out the parents attitudes towards girl child education in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study was to examine parents attitude towards girl child education.

  1. To determine the need to give equal educational opportunities to their girl child as they would do to their boy child.
  2. To determine the influence of culture, tradition and religion on girl child education in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.
  3. To determine the influence of school activities on girl child education.


1.4   Research Questions

  1. Will the level of education of parents be a perceived factor that influences the attitude of parents towards girl-child education?
  2. Will religious inclination/belief be a perceived factor that impacts on the attitude of parents towards girls child education?
  3. Will socio-economic be a factor that has a negative impact on parent attitude towards girl child education?
  4. Will culture as a factor influence parents attitude towards girl child education?


 1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were tested in this study;

  1. There is no significant influence of level of education of parents as a perceived factor and the attitude of parents towards girl child education.
  2. There is no significant difference between the religious inclination/belief and attitude of parents towards girl child education.


1.6   Significance of the Study

Research of this kind is of utmost value. It is important since it is hoped that the outcome of the research will educational planners, school administrators, teachers, policy makers, parents or guardians and all stakeholders to have a clear understanding of some fundamental issues related to girl child education. Also, through the findings and recommendations of this research, parents may be enlightened on the need to give equal educational opportunities to their girl children. Parents attitude towards girl child education.

Also, the study serves as a mean of enlightenment to all and sundry to discourage parents from gender disparity, discrimination and preferential treatment among their children. Again, all should know that to train a man is to train a man or an individual but to train a woman is to train a nation or a generation.  In fact, the benefits are in numerable.


1.7   Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to the following

  1. Teaching and non-teaching staff from five (5) selected high schools.
  2. Independent variable of girl child education.
  3. Dependent variables of perceived factors and parents attitude.
  4. Use of self-structured questionnaires to illicit information from respondents.
  5. Pearson product statistics for data collection.


Operational Definition of Terms

Father: The family-head, ordinarily  he is the bread-winner. He may be self-employed or in paid employment. If deeply religious, he sticks to his wife otherwise, he may have a concubine or two outside his home, who enjoys his good moods and fat pockets but rarely  toils with him.

Mother: Is usually a duly married wife with a dual basis for being in the home often than not. She was married under natural law and custom and the church. The reality of life today is that there are some simple mothers and wives who effectively run their homes.

Primordial: In brief, something that has its existence from the beginning of the world.

Parents: Human beings and adults who are fathers and mothers.


Poverty: When there is little or nothing to eat at home or little or no money to pay school fees and buy clothes. Tempers are set on edge and the bad instincts of human beings are let loosed.

Children: These are legitimate product of marriage male and female. They include also children of one of spouses (often the male) inherited from a previous marriage.

Bread-Winner: Somebody whose income or earnings are the family main income. He is the main earner of the family. Garbage: Trash Refuge, compost, debris liter, waste, rubbish.

Illiteracy: Unawareness, inexperience, unfamiliarity.

Puberty: In brief, age of sexual maturity, adolescence, youth, teens.

Offspring’s: Progeny, descendants, issues, young blood, litter, posterity.



Based on the findings, the following conclusions are raised.

(i)     Illiterate parents still find it difficult to embrace the girl child education though some are trying.

(ii)    Fear of insecurity and a lot more give some kind of pressure on parents, which affect their attitudes towards girl child education

(iii)    Man being a product of his own culture points to the fact that cultural background of parent in no small measure affects their attitudes towards girl child education.


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Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research.

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