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PARENTING STYLES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

PARENTING STYLES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study

1.5    Research Questions

 

1.6    Research Hypotheses

1.7    Limitation   of the Study

1.8    Delimitation of the Study

1.9    Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    The Concept of Parenting Style

2.2    Categories of parenting style

2.3    Effect of Autocratic and Democratic Parenting Style on Pupils Performance

 

2.4    Effects of Parental Involvement on Academic of Pupils in Mathematics

2.5    Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY   

3.1    Area of the Study

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

 

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

3.6    Validation of Instrument

3.7    Administration of Instrument

3.8    Scoring of Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Data Analysis and Result

4.2    Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestions for further Studies

References

Appendix

 

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the influence of parenting styles and pupils’ academic performance in Mathematics in primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. The population of the study was one thousand two hundred (1200) primary four pupils. One hundred (100) primary four pupils were randomly sampled from two selected primary schools and used for the study. An intact class of fifty (50) primary four pupils was used simultaneous in two different selected primary schools. Research design was quasi-experimental (Equivalent Samples Materials Design).

The instrument adopted for this study was parenting styles and pupils academic achievement test (PSPAAT). Results obtained were analyzed using the t-test statistics. It was therefore revealed that the two null hypotheses tested were rejected at p=0.05 level of significant. This implies that, parenting styles have a great influence on primary four pupil’s academic performance in mathematics in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

Also, parental involvement in education of their children at home influences their academic performance. Following the above findings, it is recommended that government should organize seminar for parents to be aware of the necessary of parental involvements in the education of their children and also for parents to know the best parenting style to be adopted in grooming their children.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the Study

Education is the process of developing or training an individual to cope with the challenges of living. The quality of educated individuals available in any society determines its pace of development. The emergence of western form of education brought about the formal education system (that is the school system).

According to Ojerinde (2022) the introduction of this system of education led to the type of education that is planned and provided under classroom situation by trained teachers and instructors. School is a training center to develop pupils into efficient social beings and to train them to further education as the progressive members of the society (Sidhu, 2012).

According to Nweke (2010), Akinyemi (2013), Mamman (2019), Alkali (2008) and Atamda (2012), just to mention but a few, standards in education have been or are falling.

 

PARENTING STYLES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

In addition, Ojerinde (2013) stated that performance of pupils in public examinations have reminded the visible evidence of falling standards. Researchers have blamed the low standards of education on some factors such large class size, inadequate facilities, inadequate teachers, facilities, funds- and – library material (Talorbi 2019, Mahboob 2018, and Ireogba, 2012).

School is a creation of community and pupils found in schools are from different homes, the home activities go a long way in determining learners success for instance, Bakare (2014) advanced four causative phenomena that could affect individuals scholastic achievement, these include, the child’s attitude, family school and society from these phenomena, parents stand in the position of the family. This shows the importance of the involvement of parents in the improvement of pupil’s academic performance.

Parental involvement includes a wide range of behaviours, but it generally refers to parents mode of training and investment of resources in their children schooling, parents involvement at home can include activities such as discussion on school, issue helping in homework and reading with children (Dauber, Epstein 2019).

Parental beliefs and perception have also been shown to be strong predictors of parental involvement. In addition, Karback (2011) opined that the more favourable children perceived their parent behaviour towards them, the more they are likely to perform successfully in school.

The style of parenting adopted in different homes affects the children’s disposition. This can be to the development of her child or to the detriment of his or her academic career.

 

Baumimd (2019) attempted to link family interaction to children’s cognitive competence. She postulated three family parenting styles, these are authoritative, authoritarian and permissive, which have consequences on the development, cognitive and social competence of child, she added that, these family types differ in value, behaviors and standards of bringing up their children.

Effiong (2011), also stated base on the study of Baumrind (2019) that the authoritative which involved accuracy and parental consideration, authoritarian which involves absolute power of the parents and permissive parenting style may affect a child as changing tools for a child’s upbringing either positively or negatively as the child develop independency base on the environmental condition.

 

Statement of the Problem

The act of parenting is fundamentally concern with the care of parent to the children. In most homes in Nigeria parenting cares are grossly ineffective in producing desired learning out come in pupils. It has been observed that parents do not have only one style of grooming their children, and some pupil’s performance tends better while some are not better.

To this end, a lot of researchers have attributed to the poor performance of pupils to a number of categories of parenting styles as they may affect the academic performance of pupils, either positively or negatively.

Sequel to the poor performance of the pupils, the researcher sought to determine the differences on parenting styles on pupil’s academic performance in mathematics in primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

 

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in parenting styles and pupils academic performance in mathematics in primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine the difference in the academic performance of pupils whose parents adopt democratic and those with autocratic styles of parenting
  2. Investigate the difference in the academic performance of pupils whose parents involve in their education at home and those whose parents do not involve.

 

Significance of the Study

The finding of this study will be of significant to the parent because they would be educated on the extent of parenting styles that will influence their wards positively or negatively. This will assist them in creating conducive home environment, in addition, teachers and school administrators stand to be educated that, there is need to ensure effective link between homes and school so as to guide parents base on the way they should handle their children.

 

Research Questions

To guide the study, the following research questions were asked:

  1. What is the different in the academic performance of pupils whose parents adopt democratic and those parents adopt autocratic styles of parenting.
  2. What is the difference in the academic performance of pupils whose parents gets involve in their education at home and those whose parents do not involve.

 

Research Hypotheses

To actualize the objectives of the study, the following null hypotheses were formulated and tested to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of pupils whose parents adopt democratic and those with autocratic styles of parenting.
  2. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of pupils whose parents involve in their education at home and those whose parents do not involve.

 

1.7    Limitation of the Study

Financial Constraint: The present economic in the country drastically reduces the available funds needed to cover more institution for this study.

Time:  The limited time give to carryout this research work also posed a great constant as such many schools and duration were limited for the study.

Geographical Factors: The study was limited to two (2)  primary school in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

 

Conclusion

Pupils are the one’s for which the schools are set up, the contribution of the home goes a long way with charity, they say charity begins at home. Teachers only build on the foundation laid by parents. Also, if the home climate does not compliment teachers’ efforts, there is the tendency for children’s poor performance.

As such, parenting styles such as democratic, autocratic parenting styles influence pupils’ academic performance in mathematics particularly in primary schools especially those that involves in their wards education.

 

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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

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