Research Proposals



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1.1  Background to the study

1.2  Statement of the Problem

1.3       Objective of the study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Research Hypotheses


1.6       Significance of the study

1.7       Delimitation of the study

1.8       Limitations of the study

1.9       Definition of Terms





3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of Study

3.3       Population of Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5       Instrumentation


3.6       Validation of the instruments

3.7       Reliability of the instruments

3.8       Scoring

3.9       Research Procedure

3.10     Method of Data Analysis



4.1       Results

4.2       Discussion of Result

4.3       Summary Findings



5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Implication of the Study

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Suggestion for further Study

5.6       References

5.7       Appendix




1.1       Background of the Study

In the lower basic level, science is presented as Basic science and in senior secondary level, science is presented as different distinct subjects such as Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Geography and science at the tertiary level of education is split into diverse broad and specialized fields such as Science Education, Biochemistry, Zoology, Botany, Engineering and Medical sciences.

In view of this, science becomes a necessary tool for secondary school graduates to gain admission into science and science related courses in the university alongside English and Mathematics.

Owolabi (2014) defined science as an integral part of human society. Its impact is felt in every sphere of human life, so much that it is intricately linked with a nation’s development. Science as a field of study has done a lot for mankind. For instance, life has been made a lot easier for man as a result of the advancements in science. Through science, man has been able to better understand his environment and this has enabled him to manipulate the conditions of his environment to suit his own benefit.

Science has also made it possible for man to acquire his desired needs easily. It has reduced human needs to the barest minimum. Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe.


Without the applications of science, it would have been impossible for man to explore the other planets of the universe. Also, the awareness of the existence, of other planets would not have been realized without science (Ogunleye, 2020).

Basic Science is one of the core-science subjects which prepare the young scientists for the task ahead. It has remained one of the most difficult subjects in the junior secondary school curriculum NERDC (2013).


Therefore, the study of Basic science becomes necessary for students at the junior secondary level of education to study and understand so as to prepare them for further exploration in science at the senior secondary level of education.

The objective of the basic science as enumerated in Federal Ministry of Education 2007 to enable students develop interest in science and technology. Apply their scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet societal needs, take advantage of the numerous career opportunity offered by the science and technology, become prepared for further studies in science and technology, to avoid drugs abuse and to be safety and security conscious.



Parents of different occupational classes often have different styles of child rearing, and disciplining their children as well as reacting to their children educational needs.

According to Smith and Francesconi (2010), in a study on impact of home background on educational attainment in high schools in San-Francisco, the finding showed that there is a significant relationship between each parent’s educational level and their children performance in school. They further explained that mother education has a strong association with the children academic performance than that of the father.


Therefore, this means that children from parents who attain formal education do show self-involvement in the education of their children and this becomes the motivational factor for the students to study hard and aim high because their home environment has not expose them to the kinds of materials used in schools.

If home environment is not intellectually stimulating, students find it difficult to cope in school and may eventually drop-out of school.


Thus, researchers have shown that socio-economic status and host of other factor relating to home environments of students, such as educational level, income level, environment, means of recreation and parent’s interest in education could have effect on children academic performance(Okon, 2017, Anietie, 2015 and Edem, 2014).

Parental educational status refers to the level which the father and mother attain educationally and it is the qualification of the parents (father and mother).

Formally educated parents do, however, share some unique demographic characteristics that differentiate them from non-formally educated parents.


Formally educated parents assist the children in doing their assignment at home, pay for home teachers to teach the children at home after school, buy books that the children will read at home and monitor the level of their children academic performance in school in comparison to non-formally educated parents.  The parental socio-economic status and students academic performance in basic science.

On the contrary, formally educated parents do also tend to have specific challenges that impede their ability to effectively educate their children. These challenges may be evidenced across all homes, they are perhaps most potent in formally educated parents that they are too busy and handover the children to be taken care of by caregivers and home teachers without paying keen attention to children educational development, lack of motivation to the children and lack of steady parental care for their children (King, 2011).

The level of income of the parent is another factor which assists parents to be classified socially to different strata in the society which may play important role in the academic performance of the students in secondary schools and universities.

According to Samuel (2014) the level of income is the amount of money the parents (father and mother) receive monthly, weekly or daily from their occupational activities.


According to Enang (2012), the actions and how people behave depends on who the people stay with and where they stay; since the development of the child is determined by the environment and the biological make up of the child. This condition requires careful planning and arrangement of educational related activities at home such as home lesson to optimized experiences that support learning.

Therefore, the home environment is of paramount importance in shaping and reshaping intellectual ability of the students.

This implies that supportive and favorable home environment enriched with enough learning facilities, favourable climate makes students more comfortable, concentrated on their academic activities that resulted in high academic performance. This educational process occurs in physical, social, cultural and psychological environment. A proper and adequate learning environment is very much necessary for a meaningful learning.


Kainuwa and Yusuf (2013) stated that the home environment and home processes food preparation and washing of clothes provide a network of physical, social and intellectual forces and factors which affect the student’s learning. According to them, the home’s level of encouragement, expectations and educational activities in the home are related to socio-economic status of parents. The parental socio-economic status and students academic performance in basic science.

Apart from the socio-economic status such as educational status, income level and interest in education by parents, another socio-economic factor is the availability of facilities in the home which enable children to develop problem solving skills and promote interest in learning science. When students are not exposed to good facilities like home library, play materials, information and communication technology and garden precisely in the home, they tend to be performing high in school.

These material like the information and communication technology facilities and play materials can be used by the students with their parents to during recreation and these may influence their performance in school. Udom (2009) identified recreational facilities as the major factor contributing to children motivation to learn at home and increases students’ academic performance in the school system.

Sign (2014) posited that learning takes place in a conducive environment within a web of social relationship as parents and children interacts. All aspects of the home environment provide survival, protection, development and participation in the learning process to the students. Thus, this means that the focus is on learning which strengthens the capacities of students to act progressively on their own behalf through the acquisition of relevant knowledge, useful skills and appropriate attitudes which help them to create for themselves and others a safety place, security and healthy intervention in promoting students’ academic performance in Basic Science.


1.2       Statement of the Problem

Home is the first point of contact of children in the world and the home consist of two important adults’ father and mother of which each of them occupy a specific position and function in the overall development of the children. When both parents are present, it implies that the child would derive much care from them and according to psychology; these children develop emotional and psychological attachment to their parents.

Likewise, some students are motivated by their parents through the provision of educational materials like text books and exercise books and other parents do not; equally some students come to school properly fed, others do not. These then motivated the researcher to ask whether these differences among students which arises as a result of different home socio-economic background could influence the students’ academic performance in school. In the quest to provide answer to this question, triggers the investigation into parents’ socio-economic status and students’ performance in Basic Science in secondary schools.


1.3       Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to investigate the influence of parental socio-economic status on students’ academic performance in Basic Science in public secondary schools. In order to achieve the main objective, the study aimed at achieving the following specific objectives:

  1. To examine parental educational level and students performance in Basic Science in secondary schools;
  2. To examine parent’s income level and students’ performance in Basic Science in secondary schools; and
  3. To investigate parental assistance at home and students’ performance in Basic Science in secondary schools.


1.4       Research Questions

  1. What difference exists in academic performance of students based on parental education in Basic Science?
  2. What difference exists in academic performance of students based on parental income in Basic Science?
  3. What difference exists in academic performance of students based on parental assistance in Basic Science?


1.5       Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference in academic performance of students based on parental education.
  2. There is no significant difference in academic performance of students from high-income parents and students from low-income in Basic Science.
  3. There is no significant difference in academic performance of students whose parents assist in doing homework and those whose parents do not assist in doing homework.


1.6       Significance of the Study

  • To the parents and guardians, the findings of this study will enable them to have the knowledge and skills to study their children very well to know their educational needs and challenges. Also to have alternative ways of child rearing without abusing them through poor socio-economic status.
  • To the teachers, the study will help them to develop critical and creative mind in the selection of instructional strategies which will motivate the students in the teaching/learning process irrespective of their parents’ socio-economic status. The parental socio-economic status and students academic performance in basic science.
  • To the government, the study will help them to understand the various ways which parents’ socio-economic status have influenced the performance of students and proffer ways of assisting the parents as well as ways of helping the students who are from different socio-economic status.


  • The study will help educational planners to understand the effect of parents’ socio-economic status on students, so that they know where and how to start combating it in the planning of the educational programme in schools.
  • To the school counselors, the study will provide useful information to them for the effective counseling of both parents and students on the consequences of parents’ socio-economic status on students’ performance in school.
  • Through this study, religious organization and non-governmental organizations will understand the effect of parental socio-economic status and students’ performance and thus obtain appropriate knowledge on how best to contribute and participate in the educational sector.
  • This study will also contribute to the body of knowledge in general by providing direction to future researchers who may wish to further their investigation on similar topic.


Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined as used in the study:

Socio-economic status: This refers to individual’s or groups’ demographic, social and economic position in relation to others. In this study, socio-economic status was measured in terms of level of education, income, interest in education, means of recreation and environment.

Parents: This refers tithe father and mother of a child whose duty is to take care and provide for the child. It may also refer to the child guardian. (i.e. a person who take place of the father and mother in the absent of the real parents).

Academic Achievement: This is the grade or scores of students in examination or continuous assessment.


Level of Educational: This means the stage one reach educationally from primary, secondary to tertiary level.

Income Level: This is the level of monetary payment receive for goods or services, or from other sources as rent or investment.

Parental Assistance: This refers to the amount of participation a parent has when it comes to schooling and her child’s education.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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