Research Proposals

MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE

MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgements

 

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE:     INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

 

1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO:    REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

 

3.5       Instrumentation

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2           Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study

References

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Basic Science and technology has also made it possible for man to acquire his desired needs easily. It has reduced human needs to the barest minimum. Ogunleye (2020) observed that science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe.

Owolabi (2023) defined science and technology as an integral part of human society, whose impact is felt in every sphere of human life, so much that it is intricately linked with a nation’s development.

Without the applications of basic science and technology, it would have been impossible for man to explore the other planets of the universe. Inadequate use of motivation by teachers therefore may go a long way in decreasing students’ interest in learning. Patrick (2013) refers to motivation as an act that causes a person to act or to do something.

 

Olabaji (2017) views motivation as an incentive which incites, inspires and promotes the desire of the individual in learning. It also makes the study interesting to students.

The learning environment, teachers’ motivation and knowledge development of (students) learners relatively need attention in the field of teaching and learning. What happens in the classroom between psychological implication of teachers concerning their motivation and students’ ability to study well has an impact on students’ academic achievement and opportunity to learn (Olabaji, 2017).

 

MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE

However, motivation can be classified into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation is the pleasure and interest in activities that exists within an individual rather than outside pressure. It is the foundation of having enjoyment in performing activity without any external incentives.

 

Whereas individuals who are extrinsically motivated need rewards and the punishments to engage in any activity. For students rewards can be in the form of grades and marks in examination. Achievement motivation is concerned with achieving the successful outcomes at the end of the process (Harold and Bernard, 2021).

According to Oziki (2019), availability of teaching/learning resources and teachers’ motivation enhances the effectiveness of schools as these are basic things that can bring about good academic achievement in the students. Obviously, in teaching-learning process with the help of motivational strategy, Basic Science and Technology teachers can maintain, control, and arouse interest of the learners.

 

Students’ learning process becomes more successful by using different motivation strategies. Also, motivation in education is the degree of self-esteem to processes and the sense of value of determine how well the students can improve and develop their learning can exploit his potentials (Halonen and Santrock, 2016).

Ideally, schooling offers efficient means of allowing learners to improve their knowledge and skills and acquire increasingly advanced forms of both. Educators who use rewards to help learners persist in the face of challenging tasks to gain automaticity also help them reduce the amount of effort needed later to attain their evermore challenging goals. Appropriate rewards improve learners’ ability to perceive cues by guiding their attention to constructive action, reinforcing specific forms of learning, and rewarding high levels of achievement (Dennis, 2022).

 

Students’ motivation affects every aspect of school life, from attendance, to academic achievement, to extra-curricular activities promoting the greatest student motivation possible is extremely importance to every teacher in secondary schools especially in today’s educational climate where school are continuously under pressure to improve students’ test scores, responsible and accountability student with learning disability face even greater challenges every day as they walk into classroom. Motivational strategies and students academic achievement in basic science.

Therefore, this is because these students can struggle with the easiest of tasks presented by teachers, students with learning disabilities can seem like the most unmotivated of all, going to extremes not to show their weaknesses.

 

As a result of this pressures, teacher bombard students with the promise of rewards; sticker for good behaviour, treats for completing assignment, lunches for turning in homework. Thus, of all the reward given, grades are most common reward (Seoane and Smink, 2016).

Researchers postulated that teachers’ praise is a positive reinforcement for students’ appropriate behaviours and the provision of high rates of opportunities for students to respond correctly to academic questions, tasks, or demands decreases inappropriate student behaviours and increases appropriate behaviours (Partin, Robertson and Oliver, 2010).

 

Furthermore, consistent and appropriate use of teachers’ praise to increase opportunities for students to respond may serve as an important 1st step to establish predictable and positive classroom contexts (Partin, Robertson and Oliver, 2020).

Furthermore, the teachers should also note that ineffective use of instructional materials (like concrete objects hairs textbooks, chalkboard and picture) for teaching Basic Science and Technology in secondary school has discouraged many students from learning Basic Science and Technology (Imosie, 2022).

 

As opined by Arokwu (2023), teachers in the past, teaching Basic Science and Technology in secondary schools relied on few or no instructional materials at all in their teaching. They believed they can force knowledge no matter how unpleasant into the empty brain of the children or students. This made learning of Basic Science and Technology for most students become unpleasant superficial learning.

Aghenta (2022) carried out a survey which showed that students’ academic performances in Basic Science and Technology were poor in the past because their teacher did not give them feedback in their previous assessments in the past years. But in subsequent years when the teacher sees the need of given feedback to their students before the next assessment, the academic performance of those students improve in the subject.

 

As opined by Sprint (2022), teachers can utilize successful strategies and tactics to make learning effective because motivation plays a significant role to arouse the students’ interest towards the learning process. Indeed, at all educational levels it is important for instructors to understand the value of motivational practices. This is because students’ engagement remains an important concern among educators.

Basic Science and Technology teachers may use positive reinforcement because it plays a significant role in enhancing the students’ academic achievements. However, this study therefore seeks to examining motivational strategies and students academic achievement in basic science in junior secondary schools.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, Basic Science and Technology is a compulsory subject up to secondary school level. During this past decades, performance of students in Basic Science and Technology in National Examination has dropped significantly in Uyo Local Government Area and this has been a major concern for the society. Moreover, the parents and educational stakeholders have continued to raise concerns over the poor performance in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination.

Undeniably, the performance of students towards achieving educational goals is said to be very important in most society today.

 

Unfortunately, for some years now the performance of students in this subject (Basic Science and Technology) has been poor. This was realized during the teaching practice experience by the researcher. Motivational strategies and students academic achievement in basic science.

Some researchers have suggested lack of pedagogy and inadequate use of appropriate instructional materials. Others have suggested lack of intrinsic motivation towards learning. No researcher  has carried out a study on extrinsic motivational strategies and students’ academic achievement in the study area. Hence, the researcher interest in examining motivational strategies and students academic achievement in basic science in junior secondary schools.

 

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine motivational strategies and students academic achievement in basic science in junior secondary schools. Specifically, the study seeks:

  1. to examine the relationship between teachers’ reward and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology.
  2. to determine the relationship between teachers’ praise and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology.
  3. to examine the relationship between teachers’ feedback and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology.

 

1.4       Research Questions

            The following research questions were formulated for the study:

  1. To what extent is the relationship between teachers’ reward and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology?
  2. To what extent is the relationship between teachers’ praise and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology?
  3. To what extent is the relationship between teachers’ feedback and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology?

 

1.5       Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant relationship between teachers’ reward and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology.
  2. There is no significant relationship between teachers’ praise and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology.
  3. There is no significant relationship between teachers’ feedback and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology.

 

1.6       Significance of the Study

The study is significant in the following ways:

  • It will help Government and Education Board to understand the influence of teachers’ motivational strategy on students’ academic achievement especially in Basic Science and Technology so that they can advise teachers on how and ways to motivate students.
  • It will also enable teachers to structure students’ education through improvisation of teaching resources to make them more effective in helping to improving the efficiency of their academic performance.

 

  • Furthermore, it will bring to light the role of motivation in the classroom experience of Basic Science and Technology students in secondary schools. Moreover, whether this element of motivation is an added factor to achievement by students of Basic Science and Technology in schools. Motivational strategies and students academic achievement in basic science.
  • In addition, it will aid the stakeholders in education to encourage teachers teaching the subject and other subjects in secondary schools to look for better ways they can motivate their students for better academic achievement.
  • Finally, the outcomes of this study will serve as a reservoir of knowledge where future researchers can easily gain knowledge as the work will be documented.

 

Definition of Terms

Motivation: This is a force which initiates, energizes, sustains and stimulates learners’ behaviour to act towards a chosen goal.

 Strategy: In brief, a plan or method which one can use to achieve a particular purpose.

Teachers’ Motivation: This is described as the ways by which a teacher tries to stimulate their learners in order for them to try their best for better academic achievement.

Motivational Strategies: These are methods adopted by a teacher to motivate students to take active part during teaching and learning for better academic achievement.

 

Academic Achievement: This refers to the scoring or exhibited ability of students in school test, examination and other related activities in the school.

Praise: Word that shows approval or admiration for something or somebody especially when they do something right.

Reward: An award that is given to a person who does very good work or students who does better in school to encourage him or her. 

Feedback:  This is a situation whereby teachers showed the learners their performance in test or examination before another assessment.

 

Conclusion

Based on the specific objectives of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. There is a significant relationship between teachers’ reward and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology.
  2. There is a significant relationship between teachers’ praise and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology.
  3. There is a significant relationship between teachers’ feedback and students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology.

 

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Ikemesit

Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with projectboss.com.ng. I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research. ikemesitetukapan20233@gmail.com

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