MOTIVATION AND TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

MOTIVATION AND TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
MOTIVATION AND TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

MOTIVATION AND TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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ABSTRACT

The main purpose of the study was to examine Motivation and Teachers’ Performance in Teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools. Specifically, the study examine teachers’ performance, under the following sub-heads; influence of regular payment of salaries on teachers’ performance the teaching of Business Studies. The method used for the study was a survey method. This method permitted the use of a questionnaire to sample opinions of 45 teachers out of the population of 63 teaching force from 5 selected secondary schools.

 

The data collected were analyzed and tested using chi-square (x2)statistical tool at a significant level of 0.05 with the degree of freedom of 12. The study findings were as follows; There is a significant influence of regular payment of salaries on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies. There is a significant influence of good working condition on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies. There is a significant influence of provision of teachers’ quarters on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

Education is considered to be the fifth most stressful profession (Kyriacou, 2001), and teaching in the secondary school is regarded as one of the top 10 tough jobs (Hayward, 2009). There are many aspects contributing to the success of Business Studies teaching and learning process. One such aspect is the teacher.

 

Teacher has a crucial role and is one of the main factors that contribute to the students’ achievement. It is important to realize that the role of teachers is not only to teach, but also to motivate students. Especially, students who live in rural areas where there are a lot of difficulties and challenges faced by the students and teachers as well.

According to Pate (1998) the study of motivation is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain ways. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary explains motivation to mean “reason for somebody’s action; to cause somebody to act in a particular way and to stimulate the interest of somebody; to cause somebody to want to do something. This appears to be the determinant of the level of dedication to duty by workers in organization. Thus, motivation is something that moves the person to action and continues him the cause of action already initiated (McCarthy, 2012).

To Certo (2016), motivation is giving people incentives that cause them to act in desired ways. Motivation activates and energizes behavior and gives direction to behavior.

 

Hence, teachers’ motivation is a way of empowering teachers in the occupation and it involves the perceptions. Variables, methods, strategies and activities used by the management for the purpose of providing a climate. That is conducive to the satisfaction of the various needs of a teacher. So that they may become satisfied, dedicated and effective in performing their task.

Furthermore, Peretomode (2004) described motivation as the process of influencing or stimulating a person to take action that will accomplish desired goals. This however implies that motivation has the role to develop and intensify the desire of every member of the organization to work effectively and efficiently in his position.

 

Thus Ezeali and Eziagu (2009) maintain that is an “energetic force that compels or induces maintenance of a particular behavior”.  According to Bell (2004), the success of the education enterprise therefore depends on effective mobilization, empowerment and utilization of efforts of the teachers. Beside financial incentives, social and psychological factors undermine the performance of most teachers.

 

Oluchukwu (2000) observes that the use of positive reinforcement and incentive programmes such as staff welfare schemes are essential in maintaining staff motivation. To Luthans (2005), welfare schemes are the strategies employed in motivating teachers for better job performance. These are in form of salary increment, gratuity, and regular promotion, ensuring job security, and establishing cordial relationship among teachers.

 

Thus, Stimulating working atmosphere boosts morale of organizations to do more to achieve the goals (Siagian, 1986). If working conditions are not conducive, hardworking employees who can find jobs elsewhere leave while mediocre employees would stay (Hanushek, 2003).

Teachers value physical surroundings that are safe, comfortable, close to home, are clean, have adequate tools, equipment and buildings that are in good conditions. Halpert adds that employees also prefer pleasant working conditions due to their desire for physical comfort and the desire for conditions that facilitate work goals attainment (Halpert, 2011). Johnson (1990) has pointed out that teachers are malleable and dynamic within a workplace, which has a professional and supportive environment that encourages their learning and growth.

 

Hence, the need for in-service training programme as a means to continuously update teachers’ knowledge, skills and interest in chosen field (Nakpodia, 2008). It is a means for continues professional growth, which encourages the extension of technical assistance by teacher educators.

 

Onyejiaku (2007) perceives in service training as a professional training or development effort where professionals are prepared for greater job efficiency. In fact, it promotes a very flexible environment, allow workers to adopt with the working situation and also service as a form of motivation for employees. In-service training can take the form of workshops, seminars, conferences and even refresher courses.

Ijaiya (2011) described teachers’ performance as the ability of teachers to combine relevant inputs for the enhancement of teaching and learning processes.

 

MOTIVATION AND TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Research on motivation draws on several theoretical perspectives, based on the differing approaches to the origins or sources of motivation, e.g. energy, heredity, learning, social interaction, cognitive processes, activation of motivation, homeostasis, hedonism or growth motivation (Petri, 1996).

 

Fredrick Herzberg’s Two factor theory has stated that there are certain factors in the work place that can cause job satisfaction while others cause dissatisfaction. Herzberg divided the factors into motivating and hygiene factors. The motivating factors are strong contributors of job satisfaction and include things like challenging work, recognition and responsibility (Nairuba, 2011; Bhatnagar, 2014; Linda & Hannah, 2015).

 

However, the hygiene factors are not strong contributors  of job satisfaction  but  must  be  present to meet  employee  expectations  and prevent  job  dissatisfaction.  Hygiene  factors  include:  provision of employee accommodation, break tea, lunch, medical care, compensation and good working environment to ensure that an employee is not dissatisfied and ultimately promote effective employee performance (Namuddu, 2010; Bhatnagar, 2014).

Abraham Maslow’s (1943) hierarchy of needs on the other hand, organizes human needs from basic to sophisticated levels. In order of increasing importance, the clusters of needs included in Maslow’s hierarchy are physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and the need for self-actualization.

 

Adams postulated the equity theory in 1965. According to this theory, people are motivated if they experience equity/fairness at work. Baron et al. (2002) assert that people make judgments or comparisons between their own inputs at work (e.g. their qualifications, experience and effort) and the outcomes they receive (such as pay and fringe benefits, status and working conditions).

 

According to the equity theory, perceptions and not facts influence motivation (Steyn, 2002:95). Hence, the equity theory provides the basis for studying motivational implications of perceived unfairness and injustice at the workplace.

However, motivation encourages the teachers to produce quality learning process. Teachers also want to get a strong urge to do their job at school. Teachers who have high motivation in teaching have high achievement. To move forward and have a high achievement in the implementation of the learning process in secondary schools. Teachers need encouragement and efforts to develop, improve loyalty and commitment to the profession and receive the award.

From the foregoing, there is need for teachers to be motivated towards the execution of their noble duties in order to actualize the goals of education. It is therefore imperative to research on Motivation and teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in junior secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The school, like any other organization has some basic goals to achieve which among other things include a change in learner’s behavior and character. The key factor for the realization of this goal is the teacher. The teacher is very important in the educational system, since he occupies a position that is pivotal in ensuring a smooth running of the system. It is upon his professional competence, commitment and sense of duty makes school achievement possible.

The evil treatment matted on teachers has made them to devote more of their energies to trade-union matters contending with their employers for better condition of service rather than attending to their students (Guilloteaux & Dornyei, 2008).

 

Okendu (2012) Opined that when salaries and incentives of teachers are improved as the first gesture to improve their leaving standards. Teachers will work towards improving the performance hence will be appraised positively.

This will result in improvement of their living standards and working conditions of teachers in the country. Since these teachers will not stagnate in the same job group over the years. This study therefore undertaken to investigate into the effect of Motivation on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in junior secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.

 

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The primary aim of this study was to investigate on Motivation and teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in junior secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. Determine the influence of regular payment of salaries and allowances on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools.
  2. Examine the influence of good working condition on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools.
  3. Examine the influence of provision of teacher’s quarters on teacher’s performance in Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools.

 

1.4    Research Questions

To what extent does regular payment of salaries and allowances influence teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools?

How does good working condition influence teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools?

To what extent does provision of teacher’s quarters influence teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools?

 

1.5    Research Hypotheses

Ho1:   There is no significant influence of regular payment of salaries on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools.

Ho2:   There is no significant influence of good working condition on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools.

Ho3:   There is no significant influence of provision of teacher’s quarters on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary   Schools.

 

1.6    Significance of the Study

It is often imperative to ask what would be the significance of any endeavour, be it academic or otherwise. This is also true of this study.

 

The researcher anticipates that the study shall be of invaluable and great benefits to education stakeholders/administrators, teachers and general public to reflect upon the important of motivation and teachers’ performance.

 

  1. The findings of this study will be of significance to education ministries to understand that a teacher who is happy with his job, plays a pivotal role in achievement of educational goals. Hence, the relevance of motivation and teachers’ performance are very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world.
  2. Educational administrators will also understand that a well adjusted and satisfied teacher can contribute a lot to the well being of his/her students.
  3. It will help to minimize frequent strikes and industrial disputes prevalent in the education system.
  4. It will help to boost the morale of teachers towards their job.
  5. It will serve as a reference material for other researchers who may want to research in the study.

 

1.7   Definition of Terms

Motivation:  This refers to a process of arousing the interest of an individual to take a move towards a certain goal.

Teacher: Teachers can be seen as educators, tutors, instructors, coaches and trainers, according to the thesaurus function of Word. In the context of this study, ‘teacher’ refers to someone who provides curricular knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to learners at school.

Welfare Package: In this study teacher welfare packages refers to reasonable pay system, allowances and bonuses, regular payment of salaries.

Working Condition:  Refers to the conditions upon which tasks are performed by teachers in their schools, such as provision of tools, resources, good working space, availability accommodation, security of tenure, among other factors.

Teacher’s Quarters: The act of providing a free accommodation for teachers.

 

CONCLUSION

Based on the findings, it was concluded that;

  1. Teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies is influence by regular payment of salaries.
  2. Teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies is influence by good working conditions.
  3. Teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies is influence by provision of teachers’ quarter.

 

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