MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPOILAGE OF SWEET POTATO

MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPOILAGE OF SWEET POTATO
MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPOILAGE OF SWEET POTATO

MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPOILAGE OF SWEET POTATO

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Declaration

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table Contents

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of Study

1.2       Statement of Problem

1.3       Objective of the Study

1.4       Significance of the Study

 

1.5       Research Questions

1.6       Scope of the Study

1.7       Limitation of Study

1.8       Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1       Materials

3.1.1   Apparatus/ Instrument

3.1.2   Reagents

3.1.3   Media

 

3.1.4  Sample Material

3.2       Methods

3.2.1   Sample Collection

3.2.2   Preparation of media

3.2.3   Preparation of media

3.2.4   Procedure

 

CHAPTER FOUR – RESULT AND DISCUSSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Result

4.2       Microbial load of the sample(total vibal count)

4.3      Discussion of Finding

 

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendations

References

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of Study

Without reservation, sweet potato is a preferred staple food for its high nutritional value and many nutritious components, including carbohydrates, proteins, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamins and minerals (Man, Qianchu, Sen, Kunlong and Jun, 2023). The high carbohydrate content in sweet potato (80–90% on dry basis) has established it as an energy dense staple food for improving food security in many countries. The tuberous root can also be processed into starch, flour, purees, alcoholic beverages, fuel ethanol, and other commodities (Man, Qianchu, Sen, Kunlong and Jun, 2023).

However, one of the most pressing problems facing the developing of nation is food scarcity.  Salami and popoola (2017); Kana et al (2012) reported that nearly one billion people are challenged by severe hunger in these nation of which 10% are reported dead from hunger related complication in Nigeria, the root crops that are majorly important include cassava, sweet potato and Irish potatoes.

However, after harvest, these tuber suffer looses that result from physical, physiological or pathological factor s in the combination of three factors ( opara and agugo 2014).

Food scarcity and sustain inability is one of the ways of addressing this problems of the food scarcity and shortage due to activities of micro organisms after harvesting.

 

In a FAO/ WHO report of 2012, food scarcity are define as a situation in which all people at all times have both physical and economic access to adequate and nutritious food for an active and healthy life the manner in which the food is produced preserved and distributed are in consideration of the natural processes of the earth and thus sustainable, reducing spoilage, scarcity, malnutrition and poverty. The microorganisms associated with the spoilage of sweet potato.

Sweet potato (Ipoeamo batatas) is a root tuber crop belonging to the family convoluanceae. It is an energy rich carbohydrate food. It thrives very well in moderately warm climate.  The crops is grown extensively in Nigeria especially in northern part and is one of the major subsistence crops in Nigeria. Therefore, sweet potato has an enormous potential to be an effective and economic source of food energy (Oyeyipo 2012).

Micro organisms that are responsible for the spoilage of sweet potato produce extra cellular enzymes such as amylase cellulose polygalatunase, xylanases and pectin methyl esterases and these enzymes degrade the cell wall component of produce that  are susceptible leading in some cases of emission of offensive odor and water (salami and Popoola 2007) Amadioha 2012 Oladoye et al 2013.There are several rots that affect sweet potato after harvest and these rot are linked to a number of factors that are physiological, physical and microbiological. During harvesting, storage, transportation, mechanical damaged occur and this damage has been known to be predisposing tuber to spoilage and storage rot (Oyeyipo 2012).

 

1.2       Statement of Problem

Fungal pathogen cause spoilage and post harvest spoilage of sweet potato by producing various types of mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are low molecular weight toxic secondary metabolites from fungal species. These mycotoxins are dangerous in small quantities and present extreme toxicity due to their heat resistivity (Okigbo 2004; Shukla et al 2012).

In the face of the present food situation in Nigeria, one of the major obstacles of food production is that of storage. During harvesting season tuber crops are very much available at cheap prices but this availability is usually short due to storage problems. Tropical crops suffer tremendously due to inadequate storage practices. Sweet potato as crop suffers most as tuber crops.

 

1.3       Objective of the Study

The objective of the study is to determine microorganisms associated with the spoilage of sweet potato.

 

1.4  Significance of the Study

Firstly, this study will be significant important to farmers as it will guide local farmers in Nigeria in the effort to minimize too much loss of their harvested tubers.

Secondly, to document farmers knowledge on field and post harvest diseases of sweet potatoes. The microorganisms associated with the spoilage of sweet potato.

Thirdly, to establish the pathogenicity of fungal organisms associated with tuber rots of white sweet potatoes varieties.

In addition, to study the effectiveness of some chemical fungicides in reducing sweet potato rot in storage.

 

1.5       Research Questions

  • What is farmers’ knowledge on field and post harvest diseases of sweet potato?
  • What is the effectiveness of some botanical extracts in controlling sweet potatoes rot fungi?
  • What is the pathogenicity of fungi organism associated with tuber of white sweet potatoes varieties?
  • What is the effectiveness of some chemical fungicides in reducing sweet potatoes rot in storage?

 

1.6       Scope of the Study 

This work includes identification and enumeration of fungi in sweet potato and it also looks at the microorganisms associated with it mode of infection epidemiology and ways to treat and prevent it.

 

1.7       Limitation of Study  

  • Inadequate finance
  • Getting information from the internet was not easy.
  • Time constraint the researcher has to attain lectures and do assignment

 

1.8       Definition of Terms

  • Sweet potato: sweet potatoes are starch root vegetable that are rich in fiber, vitamin and minerals. They are also high in antioxidants that protect your body from free radical damage and chromic diseases.
  • Micro organisms: In brief, micro organisms or microbe is a microscopic organism which may exist in its single celled from or a colony of cells.
  • Fungi: fungi are eukaiyetic organisms that include micro organisms such as yeasts, mould and mush rooms.
  • Bacteria: bacteria are small single celled organisms that are found almost every where on earth.

 

Conclusion

This work showed that both bacteria and fungi are responsible for the spoilage of sweet potato during storage. Thus, this causes a reduction in the availability of sweet potato in market.

In order to migrate the rate of which microorganisms causes deterioration of sweet potato, several control techniques such as proper washing of the harvested tuber, cleaning of transit container, proper handling of the tuber in order to avoid spoilage, good hygienic practices by the handlers, provision of good and healthy storage facilities must be put in place.

 

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